ADAPTIVE RESPONSE 1
The human body has mechanisms that help it respond to changes in theinternal environment. Whenever there is an abnormal reaction in thebody, compensatory mechanisms come to play as a means of returningthings to normalcy. Adaptive changes act as signals that warn of somepathology. Such symptoms are important in patient management as theyplay a vital role in diagnosis. More than 60% of diagnosis is arrivedat clinically, while the rest is achieved by carrying outinvestigations.
From the case scenarios, three different disorders are affecting theindividuals. Jennifer, the 2-year old, is suffering from a bacterialinfection. The body has an intact immune system that is composed oflymphocytes and macrophages. Macrophages form part of the naturalkiller system in the human body. The role of the lymphocytes is tomediate the production of antibodies whose role is to detect eitherself or foreign antigens. Bacterial contain surface antigens thatattract the antibodies produced by the white cells. The naturalkiller cells engulf the bacteria and kill them (Antariksh & Uma,2011).
Inflammation results once some of the cells are injured togetherwith the bacteria, releasing interleukins in the process. Thechemical mediators that are released raise the set point of the bodytemperature triggering the thermoregulatory reflex center. Some ofthe associated features are a sore throat, reduction in activity andthe large lymph nodes. Jennifer’s adaptive response to the injuryis seen in the rise in her body temperature. Fever is one of thecardinal signs of infection. The pyrogenic cytokine interleukin-6 isresponsible for mobilizing lymphocytes and in the induction of fever.
Jack, the 27-year old, is suffering from irritant contactdermatitis. Epidermal cells have a relevant role in thepathophysiology of this condition. The disorder is a non-specificresponse of the affected region of the skin to the corrosivechemicals that come into contact with it. Inflammatory mediators arereleased by the epidermal cells. The key symptoms of inflammationinclude pain and redness, which Jack presents as erythematous skin.Keratinocytes are essential in the production of immune mediators.Once the skin barrier is disrupted, preformed interleukin-1 alpha isreleased to initiate the process of inflammation. Furtherinterleukins are produced by the underneath dermal cells, and suchinclude the tumor necrotic factor alpha and interleukin-8 (CXCL8).The irritation that Jack presents with is a compensatory and adaptivemechanism.
Martha’s hypertension is well controlled with hydrochlorothiazideuntil she starts facing stress once she retires. What she is nowsuffering from is stress hypertension. She has become so susceptiblethat emotional stress is leading to stimulation of the sympatheticnervous system. There is a resultant vasomotor reaction that leads toa high output state, which resembles a blood overload. More fluid inthe circulatory system is hypertension in itself. Stimulation in thevasomotor system suppresses the vasopressor system making ittransient. Her body compensates by her eating less and sleeping less.If she would eat more, it is likely that she will consume a lot ofjunk and worsen her hypertensive condition (Juan, 2013).
BP>normal for a long period (>140/90) results in increased peripheral resistance. Primary pathology unknown. Secondary pathology-neurohormonal, over-activation of the renin angiotensin and aldosterone system results in increased BP-Hypertension results.
Mind Map for Hypertension
Signs and symptoms
Stage 3 uncontrolled BP (>200/120), altered level of consciousness, anxiety, edema, increased renal lab values, renal dysfunction, decreased urine output. Others may include paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea.
BP consistently >140/90, complete blood count, urinalysis, cholesterol tests, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and clinical signs and symptoms.
Cardiomegaly, decreased urine output, reduced appetite and activity.
American adults above 20 years. 33.4% male non-Hispanic whites and 30.7 female counterparts affected. Non-Hispanic blacks-42.6% male and 47% female. Mexican Americans-30.1% male and 28.8% women. 29% of Americans have hypertension. More common in males about 45 years of age and in women above 65 years.
Increased age, family history, overweight/obesity, physical inactivity, tobacco and cigarette smoking, excess salt in the diet, insufficient potassium in the diet, excessive alcohol consumption, and diabetes.
Antariksh, D., & Uma, C. (2011). Quorum sensing and Bacterial Pathogenicity: From Molecules to Disease. Journal of Laboratory Physicians, 4-11.
Juan, J. (2013). Essential Hypertension: An Approach to Its Etiology and Neurogenic Pathophysiology. International Journal of Hypertension, 1-11.