Annotated Bibliography Psychology

AnnotatedBibliography: Psychology

AnnotatedBibliography: Psychology

Historyand Systems

DeSousa A., (2011). Freudian Theory and Consciousness: A ConceptualAnalysis. MensSana Monographs,9(1), 210-217.

Thisjournal looks at Freudian psychoanalytical theory, which is based onthe unconscious and the conscious mind, from a modern perspective.The author explains different aspects of Freudian thinking analysisand the relevance of the concept of consciousness. Freudian theorycontributes to a deeper understanding of cognitive knowledge from ahistorical, psychoanalytical, anthropological, and sociologicalapproach. The article also addresses psychoanalytic psychotherapy andits contribution towards understanding the body-mind dualism andconsciousness in a broad context. The journal shows how therapyregards mental aspects to be unconscious thus, consciousness caneither be absent or present. As a result, the article shows how suchideas provoked a debate from other philosophers who consideredknowledge and mental state to be similar. Hence, they could neversupport an idea that demonstrates the existence of an unconsciousmental state.

Thisarticle is indeed an excellent projection of the similarities anddifferences that lie between psychology and Freudian theory onconsciousness. The report explains that Freudian theory is superiorin that it constructs a conceptual and meta-theoretical frameworkbetter than cognitive psychology when it comes to understandingmental issues. Freud limited the role of consciousness to that of anepistemological tool concluding that all conscious states are in aposition to be accessed through an individual`s awareness. Thus, theauthor shows how cognitive science has its focus on motive, effect,and conflict, which is useful information for the research paper.

Robinson,D. N. (2013). Historiography in psychology: A note on ignorance.Theory&amp Psychology,23(6),819–828. http://doi.org/10.1177/0959354313499426

Accordingto Robinson, a continuous theme in essays and textbooks concerningthe history of psychology proposes something fallacious in tracingthat chronicle to primal sources. Authentic writers on psychologydispute any intimation of progression from classical to modernperspectives. Nonetheless, most researchers explain that the ancientworld of philosophy and science are the origin of issues existingwithin contemporary psychology. On the other hand, some expertsconsider this notion as pure ignorance because it fails toacknowledge the relationship between consistency and recurrence.Others believe that the modern study of behavior is a cognitiveneuroscience with a cultural implication that expresses currentvalues and ongoing practices. The article also gives the position ofthe writer on the issues relating to a contemporary sense ofpsychology. The author affirms that there are many psychologies inthe modern practices hence, he refers to it as merely ambiguous.

Therefore,the article explains the foundational issues in modern. The journalis well organized to provide essential ideas, which clarifycontradicting notions regarding the history of modern psychology. Forexample, the author is quick to point out how various psychologistsview behavior and mind in recurring events or issues in thecontemporary sense.

Bolhuis,J. J., Brown, G. R., Richardson, R. C., &amp Laland, K. N. (2011).Darwin in Mind: New Opportunities For Evolutionary Psychology. PLoSBiology,9(7).http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001109

Each chapter that is established by psychological adjustments isdesigned to remedy problems faced by early theorists. According tothe article, major tenets of the evolutionary psychology paradigmcall for alteration from disciplines such as human genetics,evolutionary biology, developmental psychology, and cognitiveneuroscience. A large number of human genes have been subject toselective sweeps observed recently. As illustrated in the study,people play a prime role in construction in co-directing theiradvancement and evolution. The authors explain that EP tends to arguethat the process of human cognitive evolved due to selectionpressures acting in an environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA).These selection pressures are not entirely adaptive in a contemporaryworld that has undergone radical changes in the recent millennia.

This article is useful as it describes the transitions that the mindundergoes various processes of modification in differingenvironments. Additionally, the authors note that human behavior canbe shown to be currently adaptive in a given environment. Therefore,the journal has crucial information that will explain how psychologypractices have changed through analyses of behavioral and cognitivetraits of humans.

Danziger,K. (2013). Psychology and its history. Theory&amp Psychology,23(6),829–839. http://doi.org/10.1177/0959354313502746

Inthis article, Danziger explains how the subject of psychology hasmaintained an unchanging vital object that describes human nature.However, the concept has recently materialized into the principles ofhuman cognition. During its comparatively short history as a primarydiscipline, historiography visualized the idea of psychology back toprimeval times. As indicated in this article, historiography plays amore necessary role within psychology when it considers the presentarray of mental objects as its focus and investigates their socialcontext. As the author explains, the historiography of psychologyinvolves a historical analysis of the language utilized indefinition, description, categorization, and modification ofpsychological objects. The journal also illustrates howhistoriography explains the origin of modern psychology through awider range of topics without detracting from their old value.

Consequently,this article`s research and organization give a clear apprehension ofwhat historiography of psychology entails, which will be valuable forthe research paper. It explains that systematized knowledge thatpertains to the principles of human cognition would and provide acontinuous focus on psychology. The article also presents an accountof the difference between historiography of psychology andhistoriography in psychology. Therefore, the journal offers anin-depth explanation of the origin of modern psychology.

Vygotsky,L. S. (2012). The science of psychology. Journalof Russian &amp East European Psychology,50(4),85–106. http://doi.org/10.1037/11466-002

Thisjournal considers the development of psychology as a distinct subjectfrom its base in physiology, physics, and philosophy. Moreover, theauthor explains how psychology varies from the concept of commonsense despite indications through the hindsight bias, which perceivethem to be similar. The article shows how different sources ofpresent day psychology exist within the separate schools of thoughtin psychology. Most importantly, it illustrates how modern psychologydeals with human mind and behavior. Furthermore, it explains howvarious ideas place varying degrees of significance on understandingdifferent phases of psychology such as experimental psychology.

Thisarticle is properly researched and documented thus, providesreliable information on the science of psychology. For example, thestudy expounds on how the combination of cognitive psychology andneuroscience contributes to the current study of behavior and mind.Accordingly, it explains other developments involving the use ofcomputers and information technology in modern psychology. Forinstance, as psychologists now clinch computer-generated virtualreality, it is likely that they will discover unknown aspects ofperception by use of such previously unavailable technologicalapproaches.

Eckstein,D., &amp Kaufman, J. a. (2012). The role of birth order inPersonality: An enduring intellectual legacy of Alfred Adler. TheJournal of Individual Psychology,68(1),60–74.

Thearticle asserts that two of the paramount contributions of AlfredAdler to the behavioral sciences were the devised use of earlyrecollections and the role played by birth order as they bothinfluence an individual’s personality. The authors provide anexamination of several developmental issues that originate within thebroader framework of a family systems approach and its impact onvarious people. It also brings forth an empirical scenario forstatistically significant studies that show variations in behaviorand mental capabilities. For example, it describes the differences inperception of the adult professional life between Sigmund Freud andAlfred Adler. The article takes note of the certainty that Freud`scontributions in works of literature written by Adler are left out.For example, they propose that the interplay of feelings ofinferiority combined with striving for superiority is a salientcentral premise of Adler. The article also highlights the life ofAdler noting that his life was motivated by growing up as a smallchild in a world of giants and fighting for superiority.

This article exhibits remarkable views on the understanding of theapplication of modern psychology to solve various issues in thesociety. The authors provide a thorough explanation on how varioustheorists contributed to the development of modern psychology.According to the Journal, Freud and Adler played unique ideas thatare still used to explain changes in mental capabilities and humanbehavior in modern psychology.

Personality

Cognitive

Hofmann,S. G., Asnaani, A., Vonk, I. J. J., Sawyer, A. T., &amp Fang, A.(2012). The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review ofMeta-analyses. CognitiveTherapy and Research,&nbsp36(5),427–440. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-012-9476-1

Thisarticle reviews a study on meta-analyses that evaluated cognitivebehavioral theory for personality issues among them being personalitydisorders. The authors explain how cognitive behavioral therapy isan attractive approach to treatment used in a range of problems. Italso mentions issues that affect the character of an individual suchas anger, aggression, general stress, and criminal behaviors. Forinstance, the report notes that application of cognitive behavioraltheory is an efficient treatment compared to control approach whendealing with antisocial personality disorders. Further, the reportlooks at the efficiency of this method for various problems inchildren and elderly adults. As explained in this journal,cognitive-behavioral theory (CBT) is a class of interventions thatpossess and share the major ideas. For example, cognitive factorsuphold mental complications and psychological distress.

Thearticle is well formatted and gives a comprehensive illustration ofcognitive factors as personality perspectives. The study willcontribute to a deeper comprehension of cognitive perspective becauseit examined the comparative efficacy of CBT versus psychodynamictherapy for treatment involving personality disorders. Theresearchers conducted a thorough investigation of the notablerelative performance of psychological treatments involving thecognitive in anger control problems and aggression. Thus, theinformation is vital in explaining how psychologists use cognitiveperspective and techniques when dealing with various types ofproblems presented by their clients.

Robinson,M. D., &amp Gordon, K. H. (2011). Personality dynamics: insightsfrom the personality social cognitive literature. Journalof Personality Assessment,93(2),161–76. http://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2010.542534

Inthis article, the social cognitive approach is seen to converge withpsychodynamic when conducting personality investigation. First, thearticle mentions that neuroticism trait exposes an individual to someoutcomes. Then, the authors illustrate the use of cognitive approachassessment highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of thetechniques. Lastly, the paper explains how the cognitive approach isused construct desired behavior including unconscious affectivebiases, underlying deficits in regulating emotion, and implicitrepresentations of self and other people. This journal highlightsthat social cognitive approach to personality assessment applies inmanners that are in line and consistent with a full psychodynamicperspective on how nature operates. From the article, it is evidentthat personality social cognitive psychologists have appliedperformance-based examinations to measure differences observed inindividuals and personality variables that interest clinicalpsychologists.

Thejournal expounds on the cognitive theory, which is vital informationwhen explaining how psychologists use the approach in treatment. Theinformation provided in the article is reliable because it is drawnfrom carefully researched articles. Therefore, the article will be auseful source when combined with the other two journals on cognitiveperspective.

Weber,S., Appel, M., &amp Kronberger, N. (2015). Stereotype threat and thecognitive performance of adolescent immigrants: The role of culturalidentity strength. ContemporaryEducational Psychology,42,71–81. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2015.05.001

Thisreport examines the formation of identity regarding asocial-cognitive model. According to this article, identity is viewedas a cognitive structure or self-theory that provides a personaloutlook of reference for the interpretation of self- relevantinformation, problem-solving, and decision-making. The researchersexplain how identity`s conceptualization governs and controls thesocial-cognitive strategies used in the construction, maintenance,and reconstruction of a sense of personal characteristics.Additionally, they describe informational, normative, anddiffuse-avoidant as the three varying identity-processing formatsthat used by cognitive theorists. According to the article, peoplewho bear an informational processing style tends to be skeptical ofself-views, and they deliberately seek out, process, and use theidentity-relevant information to amend personality conflicts. On thecontrary, those with a normative processing style most definitelyadopt a collective sense of identity by internally analyzing thestandards of a significant number of others and referent groups. Forexample, they consider the evolution changes in forms of identity andfactors that may contribute to individual variations in characterstyles such as culture, parental processes, gender, and personalitytraits.

Thisarticle offers insight into the processes that causes a person torealize his or her character. Additionally, the article is veryuseful in understanding cognitive as a personality perspective. Forexample, it provides evidence from multiple sources to illustrate theindividuality processing style and show connections between identityplan and an array of status and cognitive processes.

Evolution

Johnstone,R. a, &amp Manica, A. (2011). Evolution of personality differencesin leadership. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ofthe United States of America, 108(20), 8373–8.http://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1102191108

Whenevermembers of a community vary in their choice of actions, formingcoordination among them is challenging. According to Johnstone &ampManica, leadership provides a way of resolving this difficulty thus,it is crucial to understand the evolution of traits among leaders andfollowers. In a continuous coordination, selection leads toevolutionary branching and versatility in central leadership amongmembers of a gathering even in the absence of any difference in thestate. Consequently, repeated branching occurs when peoplecommunicate in huge groups as people interact in pairs. Thesepersonality types evolve and are maintained by routine-dependentselection since leaders gain by imposing their preferences onfollowers, but they are unable to coordinate when associating withother people who possess similar capabilities. The research clarifieshow individuals who take up the role of leadership may be betterinformed than other people or may stand to acquire more from forcingtheir choices. The authors conclude by explaining how and whyselection may result in the evolution of natural leaders and subjectswithin a population.

Thisarticle gives an account of how evolution triggers leadershippersonalities. The report is well featured hence, easy tocomprehend. The journal will be useful to the research paper becauseit points out that a growing number of human studies have obtainedevidence proposing an influence of personality traits on leadership.Besides, it compares different models in evolution perspective suchas boldness, responsiveness, or trust issues, which increasesunderstanding of the theory.

Dall,S. R. X., Bell, A. M., Bolnick, D. I., &amp Ratnieks, F. L. W.(2012). An evolutionary ecology of individual differences. EcologyLetters, 15(10), 1189–1198.http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2012.01846.x

Overthe past few years, the study of personality variation via evolutionand behavior ecology has begun to generate interest amongresearchers. Dall, Bell, Bolnick &amp Ratnieks focus on differentbehaviors within populations that go past the usual change inpersonal conduct. The article also explains that the factorspromoting ecologically relevant specializations of behavior withinthe natural populations are certain to have far-reaching implicationsfor ecosystem and evolution. Accordingly, the researchers discussthese individual differences from distinct grounds such as own nichespecializations, human personality variation, and the division oflabor within environments. According to this journal, there exists apossibility that choices of behavior in different formats can confinefurther specialization in other formats. One of the primaryconsequence of recent interest in personalities is perhaps that ithas forced behavioral ecologists to challenge a notion that behavioris continuously flexible unless or until proven otherwise.

Thelogic behind this report is unquestionable. It gives an insight intonature and proposes that individual differences in behavior are morelikely to be interrelated across working contexts. Besides, itprovides a basis for understanding how evolution perspective canaffect and change an individual’s actions.

Bergmuller,R., Schurch, R., &amp Hamilton, I. M. (2010). Evolutionary causesand consequences of consistent individual variation in cooperativebehavior. PhilosophicalTransactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, BiologicalSciences,365(1553),2751–64. http://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0124

Behavioris among the most elastic of living beings` phenotypic features. Theflexibility is an essential ingredient of many tested mechanisms thatfavor the evolution of cooperative traits. The journal indicates thattangible evidence shows that collaborative practices are often lessmalleable than expected and that people exhibit stagnant differencesin the amount and type of joint and non-joint manners displayed. Thearticle also studies the factual evidence for an individual’sdifference in conjugated behavior across populations. The authorsconclude by embracing the fact that existence of steady individualdifferences in cooperativeness is necessary for an understanding ofthe evolution of personality.

Thisarticle is precise and accurately describes the evolution of thehuman character. The report will provide vital information to theresearch paper because it illustrates that animal nature is relevantfrom an evolutionary point of view as it classically paradesheritable variation and can consist of fitness influences.

References

Bergmuller,R., Schurch, R., &amp Hamilton, I. M. (2010). Evolutionary causesand consequences of consistent individual variation in cooperativebehavior. PhilosophicalTransactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, BiologicalSciences,365(1553),2751–64. http://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0124

Bolhuis,J. J., Brown, G. R., Richardson, R. C., &amp Laland, K. N. (2011).Darwin in Mind: New Opportunities For Evolutionary Psychology. PLoSBiology,9(7).http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001109

Dall,S. R. X., Bell, A. M., Bolnick, D. I., &amp Ratnieks, F. L. W.(2012). An evolutionary ecology of individual differences. EcologyLetters, 15(10), 1189–1198.http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2012.01846.x

Danziger,K. (2013). Psychology and its history. Theory&amp Psychology, 23(6),829-839.

DeSousa A., (2011). Freudian Theory and Consciousness: A ConceptualAnalysis. MensSana Monographs,9(1), p210-217.

Eckstein,D., &amp Kaufman, J. a. (2012). The role of birth order inPersonality: An enduring intellectual legacy of Alfred Adler. TheJournal of Individual Psychology,68(1),60–74.

Hofmann,S. G., Asnaani, A., Vonk, I. J. J., Sawyer, A. T., &amp Fang, A.(2012). The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review ofMeta-analyses. CognitiveTherapy and Research,&nbsp36(5),427–440. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-012-9476-1

Johnstone,R. a, &amp Manica, A. (2011). Evolution of personality differencesin leadership. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ofthe United States of America, 108(20), 8373–8.http://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1102191108

Robinson,D. N. (2013). Historiography in psychology: A note on ignorance.Theory&amp Psychology,23(6),819–828. http://doi.org/10.1177/0959354313499426

Robinson,M. D., &amp Gordon, K. H. (2011). Personality dynamics: insightsfrom the personality social cognitive literature. Journalof Personality Assessment,93(2),161–76. http://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2010.542534

Vygotsky,L. S. (2012). The science of psychology. Journalof Russian &amp East European Psychology,50(4),85–106. http://doi.org/10.1037/11466-002

Weber,S., Appel, M., &amp Kronberger, N. (2015). Stereotype threat and thecognitive performance of adolescent immigrants: The role of culturalidentity strength. ContemporaryEducational Psychology,42,71–81. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2015.05.001