Boys Success in School

BOYS SUCCESS IN SCHOOL 1

Institution Affiliation

The role of gender in the education sector has continued to be amatter of discussion across various societies (Fletcher, Najarro &ampYelland, 2015). With focus on equality, it is believed that moreemphasis has been laid on the implementation of girl-child educationpolicies at the expense of the male child (Weis, Heikamp &ampTrommsdorff, 2013). For a long time, there has been an increasingdebate on which of the two genders is the most intelligent when itcomes to a classroom situation. The scholars have had a relativelyhard time convincing parents and students on who between female ormale students is the cleverer of the two genders (McBride, 2013). Thedifficulty in having a conclusive explanation is based on the factthat various factors influence the decision-making skills by thestudents (Burns, 2015). This part of the paper will provide adetailed analysis of information contained in documents that relateto the topic. It is important to note that the literature will coverseveral areas such as practices that are attributed to the success ofthe male students, brain differences in boys, the middle school boys,the ethnic background of the boys, and finally, the economiccapabilities of the students (Fletcher, Najarro &amp Yelland, 2015).

The role of gender in the evaluation of the students’ performancescannot be ignored. When conducting an assessment of the distinctcharacteristics of each gender, it is imperative to note thedifferences between boys and girls (Fletcher, Najarro &amp Yelland,2015). Some of the factors taken into consideration, in this case,include the attainment level of each gender, cultural differences andthe role played by the teaching fraternity in ensuring that equalityis achieved in the learning process (Fletcher, Najarro &amp Yelland,2015). However, over the years, research has indicated massivedifferences between boys and girls in the academic scenario.

Gender issues have a profound significance among the educationists.They are considered to be vital in the identification of capabilitiesamong boys and girls (McBride, 2013). This is, therefore, likely toimpact on the learning process and attainment. As such, it isimportant to ensure that various factors are taken into consideration(Fletcher, Najarro &amp Yelland, 2015). From an early age, there aremassive differences between the boys and girls in a classroomsituation. In most instances, girls can communicate efficiently andfluently from an early age in comparison to the boys (Weis, Heikamp &ampTrommsdorff, 2013). Research indicates that at the age of threeyears, approximately 99% of the girls can talk. The same processtakes about an additional year for the boys to able to accomplish. Bythe age of seven, another significant variation is noted between thegenders (Burns, 2015). Only 20% of the girls experience challenges inreading. The number is significantly higher among the boys. At thesame age, 33% of the male students are likely to face difficulties inreading (Fletcher, Najarro &amp Yelland, 2015).

The difference also exists in terms of their abilities to write.Girls are most likely to know how to inscribe from an early age incomparison to the boys (OECD, 2014). However, the boys have beenestablished to be more active in the learning process a relevantexplanation for the better performance by the male students in ourcase (Fletcher, Najarro &amp Yelland, 2015). Despite the edge shownby the male students in the education process, the girls have theability to develop an impulse control at an early stage (Burns,2015). Additionally, research has indicated that the boys are alsolikely to lag behind in terms of the fine motor control thatdetermines the ability of a child to write (McBride, 2013).

Since the turn of the decade, the learning practice has been moreinclined towards the girl child thereby leaving the boy child in thecold. The latter experiences difficulties in the learning environmentsince most of the research have focused on ways of improving thestatus of the female gender in the society (OECD, 2014). As a result,an education policy that majorly focuses on literacy is likely togive the girls an edge from an early age (Fletcher, Najarro &ampYelland, 2015). On the other hand, such a school system will probablywork against the boys. Lagging behind from a very young age is likelyto have a detrimental effect on the confidence and self-esteem amongthe boys. This impacts on their motivation to learn (Burns, 2015).

The analysis of the performance of the boys within a learningenvironment should also take into consideration various factors suchas the rate of learning difficulties between the different genders(OECD, 2014). Research indicates that the number of girls sufferingfrom learning disabilities is half the number of boys that experiencea similar problem. The percentage of males suffering from autism isfour-fold that of the girls that are likely to experience acomparable predicament (McBride, 2013). Moreover, the male studentpopulation is almost entirely responsible for cases of Aspergersyndrome (Burns, 2015). The ratio between boys to the girls in thelatter case is 6 to 1. Finally, the boys are five times more likelyto be excluded from schools in comparison to the girls. This part ofthe paper will focus on past studies relating to the performance ofboth genders by taking various factors into consideration (Fletcher,Najarro &amp Yelland, 2015).

Brain Differences

This is one area of the study that has attracted massive interestacross the board. Various theories have been developed in an attemptto highlight the role of the brain in determining the performances ofall individuals within a classroom environment (Weis, Heikamp &ampTrommsdorff, 2013). Research indicates the existence of enormousdifferences between the brains of the male and female students(McBride, 2013). The differences determine how both men and women usetheir brains in the long run (Fletcher, Najarro &amp Yelland, 2015).

The first physical difference is identified in the corpus callosum.This is deemed to provide a link between the left and righthemispheres of the brain (Burns, 2015). It is relatively larger amongthe women (Waggoner, 2011). On the other hand, the left-hand side ofthe cortex is known to grow at a relatively slower rate among theboys when compared to the female counterparts (Weis, Heikamp &ampTrommsdorff, 2013). The latter is the reason the male students havethe ability to develop formal language and communication skillseffectively at a slower rate than the girls (Miville, 2013).Additionally, the girls are also able to find it easier to workcollaboratively with others (Fletcher, Najarro &amp Yelland, 2015).The physical differences between the brains are responsible for theease with which the females can talk about their emotions (Burns,2015). The male gender, on the other hand, tends to shy away fromshowing their feelings to others (Fletcher, Najarro &amp Yelland,2015).

The right side of the brain, which is predominantly responsible forthe emotions among individuals is, therefore, more active among thewomen. In addition to this, that side of the brain passes informationto the left side of the brain that is linguistically productive(Weis, Heikamp &amp Trommsdorff, 2013). The passage of informationbetween these sections of the brain is responsible for the high levelof emotions among women. As a result, the process makes it relativelyeasy for emotions to be integrated into speeches by the ladies(Burns, 2015). The same process applies to the women and theirthought processes (Fletcher, Najarro &amp Yelland, 2015).

The nature of differences between the sexes is evident in how theyboth use their brains to accomplish tasks efficiently (Fletcher,Najarro &amp Yelland, 2015). In situations where the females arerequired to perform difficult tasks, they have the ability and atendency to integrate both sides of the brain into thedecision-making process (Weis, Heikamp &amp Trommsdorff, 2013).However, the males use the side of the brain that is most suited toproviding solutions according to the prevailing situations (Burns,2015). It is, therefore, important to note that the males can makeconclusive decisions since only the most appropriate side of thebrain is involved in the decision-making process. On the other hand,the females suffer from the inability to provide a single decision incomplex matters as a result of the use of the two sides of the brainin the decision-making process (Fletcher, Najarro &amp Yelland,2015).

Due to the sensitive nature of this discussion, Scholars have beenresponsible for various propositions on the subject (Miville, 2013).In this case, it is critical to establish that the neurologists haveconducted research to prove that indeed the composition of the brainhas a substantial effect on the learning process of individuals(Fletcher, Najarro &amp Yelland, 2015). Additionally, the studieshave indicated that the differences between the performance of theboys and girls in the classroom can be attributed to the formation ofthe brain as well as the development process (DiPerna, 2015). It isfor this reason that they have declared that pushing for formaleducation among the boys at an early stage of their lives may turnout to be counterproductive. The right side of the brain developsfaster than the left in all individuals. However, the development ofthe latter has been established to take relatively longer in boysthan girls (Burns, 2015).

The teaching professionals should also take into consideration theexisting differences between the males and females from a younger age(Miville, 2013). Research conducted on brain-based differences in thelearning process between the male and female entails a comparisonanalysis of the genders from an early age all through to the latterstages of the learning process (Fletcher, Najarro &amp Yelland,2015). Based on the findings of the survey, it is evident that theboys undergo a lot of trouble. To begin, they are responsible for 70%of D’s and F’s of the school grades. Additionally, they accountfor over 80% of the disciplinary cases within the learninginstitution. The rate of learning disabilities and those on Ritalinis 70% and 80% respectively among the boys. Similar problems areevident in the reading and learning capabilities (Fletcher, Najarro &ampYelland, 2015). Finally, the statistics indicate that the rate ofdropouts among the boys is also at 80% compared to the 20% for thegirls (Miville, 2013).

The attainment levels by the boys can be attributed to a series offactors. To begin, a larger percentage of the brain of the boys isdedicated to spatial-engineering functioning. On the other hand, onlyhalf of the cortical area is devoted to verbal-emotive functioning.Additionally, brain imaging studies indicate that women utilize themost advanced sections of the brain such as the cerebral cortex(Fletcher, Najarro &amp Yelland, 2015). The male is more likely touse the most primitive areas when accomplishing similar tasks over agiven period (Burns, 2015). At the adolescent stage, there are highlevels of negative emotions in a larger portion of the female brain.This is evident in their ability to conclusively explain the reasonsfor their sadness. The negative energy is stuck at the cerebralcortex among the ladies. During the same period, the locus of theboys’ negative emotion is still dormant and remains stuck in theamygdala. It is therefore, relatively difficult for aseventeen-year-old boy to give explanations regarding the state ofhis feelings (Fletcher, Najarro &amp Yelland, 2015).

The spatial-functioning system in the brains of the boys makes itnecessary for them to show more concern about moving objects throughthe air, on the ground, and other existing means possible (DiPerna,2015). The boys are therefore more likely to engage in activitiesthat are considered to be more dangerous. They are daring and likelyprone to engage in activities that may have highly detrimentalconsequences in the long run (Miville, 2013). This is the reasonbehind the higher percentage of the boys in discipline-relatedoffenses at school from a young age (Burns, 2015). Violation of thelaw is considered to be exciting for the boys, and they find itirresistible to overcome the feeling. They are likely to overestimatetheir abilities. On the other hand, the girls are more prone tounderestimate their abilities to accomplish given tasks (Fletcher,Najarro &amp Yelland, 2015).

According to research, the boys have relatively lower levels ofserotonin and oxytocin, and as such, are more likely to be impulsivein the decision-making process in comparison to the girls. The boysare therefore, less likely to sit still and engage others inconversation as compared to the girls. The level of attainment canalso be attributed to the amount of blood flow among individuals.Boys tend to have less blood flow in their brains, and as such, thelearning process is likely to be structured or compartmentalized forthem. Additionally, studies have indicated that the male brain ismore likely to go into a state of rest (Miville, 2013). From thisstate, it can renew, reorient and recharge itself before embarking onanother task (Fletcher, Najarro &amp Yelland, 2015). The sameprocess cannot be said for the brains of the female learners sincethey can accomplish their duties without having the brain go tosleep. In terms of the classroom situation, the boy is more likely toquit listening and concentrating depending on the number of wordsused by the teacher (Burns, 2015). In instances where the learningprocess involves multiple sentences, the male students will probablyfall asleep and quit listening.

The improved performance among the boys, in this case, can beattributed to various factors. According to educationists, the mindof the boy is more suited to symbols, visuals and the use ofabstractions. For this reason, they post higher grades in math andphysics compared to the girls (Waggoner, 2011). The boys will alsoprefer video games due to the visual features that allow movement anddestruction of the status quo. Moreover, the number of offensescommitted by the boys is more significant compared to that of theladies (Fletcher, Najarro &amp Yelland, 2015). They will, therefore,be victims of disciplinary measures as a result of not listening,incomplete assignments and failure to effectively follow instructionsas required in the classroom situation.

Teaching and Parenting Enhancement for Boys

Various mechanisms can be utilized in ensuring that the learningprocess is more efficient for the boys. Some of these steps might beresponsible for the better performances by the boys in this case. Theteaching process should incorporate the use of manipulative thatwould compel the boys to employ fine motor skills. Additionally, theboys should be provided with a larger learning space to enable themto move freely during the lessons (Burns, 2015). Since the brain ofthe boys works efficiently when the learning process is structuredand compartmentalized, the lessons should be kinesthetic andexperimental to achieve the desirable objectives (Fletcher, Najarro &ampYelland, 2015). The compartmentalization process should take intoaccount the use of graphic organizers since the boys are more likelyto react positively to the use of appropriate graphics in thelearning process.

The teachers and the parents should devise ways of ensuring that theverbal instructions are kept as short as possible. Layeredinstructions will put off the learners. However, in cases whereby itis deemed necessary to use that format of instructions, they shouldbe denoted by numbers to enhance the learning process.

Strategies Attributed to

Despite significant attention being placed on the performance of thefemale students, various strategies have proven to be more efficientif used among the boys (Muchnick, 2011).As such, educationists across the globe have developed policies withthe sole purpose of ensuring that the education levels are upliftedto the required levels. The identification of the specific needs ofthe students can be regarded as one of the most important steps inensuring that the learners are well conversant with the schoolenvironment (Armstrong, 2012). Thedevelopment of such frameworks of operations will require the inputof various stakeholders within the education sector. They can be theparents, teachers, the school administration, and the policy makers.

The parents have a major role to play in facilitating the success ofthe boys within the learning environments (Balfanz, Rodriguez &ampBrasiel, 2013). By being aware of some of the strategies that lead toimproved performance among the boys in school, the parents can focuson the creation of an imaginative environment that ensures that theirchildren maximize the available resources (Muchnick,2011). One of the ways that have been identified to have asignificant impact on the boys is allowing them to play. According toresearch, boys should be given extensive time for physical activitiesrather than letting them stay idle for a substantial duration(Balfanz, Rodriguez &amp Brasiel, 2013). In this regard, the parentsshould provide an environment that encourages the boys to have enoughtime for play whenever they are away from the school environment.This is likely to have a positive effect on the learning process(Armstrong, 2012). The playing area canbe either indoors and outdoors.

The teachers also have a role to play in the success of the boys inschools (Muchnick, 2011). Because mostof the boys are more effective when actively involved in variousforms of activities, it is necessary to create learning content thatis more likely to facilitate the learning process (Armstrong,2012). In this case, the learning environment should createscenarios whereby the boys use their bodies to accomplish tasksefficiently. Boys are more likely to learn when the activitiesinvolve a “hands-on” approach (Pope, Brown&amp Miles, 2015). They will, therefore, be in a position tolearn by touching, climbing on things, building structures as well asmoving objects around within the learning environment (Armstrong,2012). However, in most instances, this strategy has proven tobe more effective among learners in the lower classes such askindergarten.

Boys should also be given an opportunity to read and listen to topicsthat interest them more. As such, the teachers and the parents/guardians of the boys have a tough responsibility of ensuring thatthey know the passions of their young ones as well as ways ofmotivating the learners to go after what they love (Muchnick,2011). Research has indicated that allowing the male studentsto venture into areas of interests, will lead to improvedperformances in the long run. Creating an environment that encouragesindividuals to develop their talents and passions culminates in animproved performance among the male learners (Balfanz, Rodriguez &ampBrasiel, 2013).

Another strategy involves allowing the boys to have some sort ofcontrol over the learning process. This gives them a sense of“ownership” and they become extensively involved in the classroomenvironment (Muchnick, 2011). Toestablish the importance of control on the performance of the boyswithin a classroom environment, a study was conducted (Carlile,2013). The research was divided into four major sections thateach of the male learners was required to undergo. The first partinvolved an interview between the boys and their mentors (Homayoun,2010). At this phase of the interviews, each of the studentswas compelled to identify their best and worst areas in class.Additionally, they were required to establish the reasons for theirsuccess or failure in the specific areas. Finally, they were neededto identify the factors that affected their performances (Pope,Brown &amp Miles, 2015).

The second part of the research required the student and the mentorto work together and construct a personal strategy for improving theperformances in the areas that were deemed to have posted poorresults. In addition to this, the plan was to be implemented in orderto facilitate the change process among the learners (Villavicencio &ampGrayman, 2012). It was believed that this would culminate in positiveoutcomes among the learners. Some of the strategies that weredeveloped in this case included meeting the coursework deadline,completion of homework, as well as development of betterunderstanding in the essays (Homayoun, 2010).After selecting the most appropriate strategy for the learningenvironment, the learners proceeded to the third stage of the survey(Hamblet &amp Council for ExceptionalChildren, 2011). Finally, they were given an opportunity todiscuss the success or the failure of the given strategy. Primarily,this research had been tailored to promote the idea that the boyswere responsible for their success or failure within the classroom.After the completion of the research and the collection of data,various conclusions were made (Hamblet &ampCouncil for Exceptional Children, 2011).

Almost all of the boys involved in the research study indicated thatthe strategy they have developed in collaboration with their mentorshad been successful. In addition to this, they had seen improvedperformances in their education (Homayoun,2010). The enhanced outcomes could be attributed to theability of the learners to meet their deadlines on time.Additionally, the new strategies provided the students with bettertechniques to facilitate the learning process and enable them toachieve their objectives within a given period (Hamblet&amp Council for Exceptional Children, 2011). From theresearch findings, the main source of motivation among the boys wasthe perceived improvement in their class work (Homayoun,2010). Over half of the students indicated that they wereunable to focus on a specific subject whenever they felt that theywere not making any progress (Carlile, 2013).They would, therefore, feel that their efforts were going to waste.

Furthermore, the research participants concluded that most of thecauses of failure were beyond their control. As such, they eitherblamed the teacher, the subject or the exams as the primary reasonsfor their inability to perform well (Villavicencio &amp Grayman,2012). More than three-quarters of the research participants alsoindicated their belief that the academic potential was not from theresults of the assessments and examinations that had been provided bythe teachers. As such, there was a mutual feeling among the studentsthat they were more likely to perform better depending on theirattitudes towards various subjects of analysis (Villavicencio &ampGrayman, 2012).

Another concept that was discussed during the analysis related to thedevelopment of individual strategies, otherwise known as the processof ownership in the stages of learning (Carlile,2013). In this case, more students found the selection of aspecific strategy to be effective since it had the ability to enablethe boys to have massive ownership of the learning process. This canbe attributed to the changes in attitudes and improved performancesposted by the students (Wolfensberger, 2012). Therefore, in instancesin which students are allowed to develop their learning strategy ofchoice, it is more likely that there will be relative improvements intheir performances (Hamblet &amp Council forExceptional Children, 2011).

From the results obtained in the study, it was noticeable that asignificant culture of achievement was evident among most of thelearners. A larger percentage of the boys stated that they had beenpleased to be selected for the completion of the project. On theother hand, they were also happy since the research had proven to beresponsible for the improved performances posted by the students intheir class work (Hamblet &amp Council forExceptional Children, 2011). There were also notableimprovements in their performances outside the school context in theform of discipline and behavior compared to others outside theclasses.

One of the factors that led to behavioral changes among the boys wasemphasis on work rather the behaviors. All the participantsappreciated the opportunity that had been given to them to have aone-on-one discussion with their mentors. This process hadhighlighted the impact of individual approaches to improving theperformances of the learners. The mentoring process, in this case,had been able to establish the attitudes of the boys towards classwork, and the factors that they attributed to their success orfailure within the classroom (Carlile, 2013).It was, therefore, important to identify the fundamental factors thatwere considered to be important to the learners within a givenclassroom situation. A third of the students involved in the studies,had attributed their success or failure in the classroom to attitudes(Hamblet &amp Council for ExceptionalChildren, 2011). These attitudes were caused by externalfactors in the learning environment. On the other hand, the remainingstudents indicated that their failures or success in the classroomwas influenced by external factors beyond their control (Carlile,2013).

The influence of the teachers is also highlighted in this case. Thesuccess among the boys will heavily depend on the efforts put by theteachers into ensuring that their students attain the required levelsof performance in the long run. When analyzing the role of teachersin the success of the boys, it is important to integrate the conceptof socialization in the classroom. This is more prominent ininstances where the argument is based on specific topics such asmathematics. The level of socialization between the boys and girlsduring the technical subjects such as math, physics, and chemistry isto be initiated by the teachers under the tutor-learner interactions(Hamblet &amp Council for ExceptionalChildren, 2011). However, such relationships are influenced bythe beliefs and expectations of the teacher for the performance oftheir students. Additionally, the attitudes towards particularstudents irrespective of their grade levels are also likely to have amajor effect on the expected outcomes.

When analyzing the nature of the teacher-student interactions,experts examine the cognitive level of the mathematics questionsprovided by the teacher (Kirby, 2012).In addition to this, it also explains the level of attention given tothe students by their teachers during their respective lessons. Otherfactors that are included in the teacher-learner relationships relateto the teachers’ handling of the responses issued to them regardingpraise or ridicule. Finally, it analyzes the interpretation of thereplies given by the teachers, and the likelihood of studentsrequesting their tutors to offer help on specific topics that need tobe effectively analyzed (Reichert, Hawley &ampTyre, 2013).

Another factor that has been established to have a significantinfluence on the performance of the boys includes the beliefs of theteachers. In this regard, it is more likely that the teachers willoffer diverse explanations on the performances of the boys and girls.The success of the boys in the more complex subjects is associatedwith ability rather than effort (Reichert,Hawley &amp Tyre, 2013). Moreover, the teachers believe thatadditional efforts by the boys will culminate in improvedperformances.

Success among Boys in Middle School

Traditionally, boys have been known to perform relatively poorer thangirls in subjects associated with art and imagination. Moreover, theylag behind in tasks that involve reading and comprehension of tasks.There are various reasons for boys to be considered to underperformin reading when compared to the girls (Lewis,2014). One of such reasons is attributed to the longer timetaken by the boys to develop literacy skills. In addition to this,there are differences in what is to be considered a grade level thatis appropriate for the boys and that which is recommended for thegirls. In most instances, boys are in more need of “teacher time”than the girls (Kirby, 2012). Due to thelimited time in the classroom, it becomes extensively difficult forthe boys to have a one-on-one time with the teachers when they reachthe middle school level. The level of progress made by the boys istherefore likely to be less efficient in comparison to that of thegirls (Lewis, 2014).

Another reason that has been attributed to the lack of success amongthe boys is the lack of reading culture among the boys. It istherefore a common phenomenon that at all ages girls read more thantheir male counterparts. The change in attitude is also responsiblefor the different performances posted by the different gender(Grigorenko, 2013). When boys get to theadolescent stage, most of them fail to apply what they read inclasses. They also fail to see real case scenarios that can beutilized by the reading materials that they have. According to theboys, the literature in the language arts classes are seen as storiesrather means of providing valuable lessons to the learners. Some ofthe boys are therefore likely to stop reading due to the belief thatthere is no direct benefit associated with the process.

When they get to the adolescent stages, they continue t developnegative attitudes towards reading and are therefore likely to stopconsidering themselves as readers (Lewis,2014). Research has indicated that most of the boys in themiddle school find themselves as non-readers. It is at this stagethat reading is regarded as a feminine activity due to genderidentification issues at this stage. For most of them, if the beliefis that reading is a feminine activity, then they will tend to avoidit as a means of demonstrating their masculinity (Lewis,2014). Despite the problems affecting the boys in the middleschools, their performances can be significantly improved by ensuringthat some strategies are developed. Both the parents and the teachershave a significant role in ensuring that there is a noted improvementin the performances of the boys. The policies taken intoconsideration are more likely to depend on the situation.

One such strategy involves using texts that are easily understood bythe boys and which they are likely to read. Even though research hasindicated that girls are more likely to perform poorly than the girlsin most subjects, they are distinct sections where the scores by theladies will be poorer than that of the boys (Harding,2010). The scores by the latter on sections containinginformational texts is usually higher than that of the girls. As aresult, both the teachers and the students should provide theteachers with texts from which they are more likely to learn afterreading. The research indicates that the informational texts are theboys’ forte. Some of the areas where such information can beobtained include the magazines and newspaper articles, books abouttopics that are likely to attract the interests of the boys such assports and instructional manuals. A survey of the boys has indicatedthat not only are they interested in the informational texts, butthey also love graphic novels and comic books. Examples of the latterinclude humorous stories and those that feature male protagonists. Byoffering such texts to the boys, there is a high likelihood thattheir performances will improve substantially.

Another strategy that can be utilized in this case relates to the useof shorter texts. Since most of the adolescent boys considerthemselves to be non-readers, they do not appreciate having toindulge themselves in long texts that they would consider as a wasteof time (Harding, 2010). For thelearning process to be more effective, the learners should beprovided with summarized texts that they can easily go through andidentify the most important aspects of the learning process. Theshortened instructional manuals also enable the students to have theopportunity to read for a relatively shorter duration therebyensuring that they have grasped some of the most important elementsof their studies (Harding, 2010).

The learning process should also allow boys to actively respond totexts (Belgrave &amp Brevard, 2014). Inthis case, the learning process should be tailored in a way thatenough time is given to the male learners to comprehend the mostimportant concept of the lesson before issuing their responses inclass. The process would require the students to read the text,discuss it among themselves before issuing the appropriate responsesas needed in a classroom situation. However, it has also beenestablished that boys do not like sitting around and discussingliterature as would be required in an English Language Arts sincethey are more inclined towards physically engaging in various tasks.Therefore, the teachers are tasked with the responsibility ofproviding an opportunity for the boys to respond to the topic thatthey have read. This would ensure that they are well conversant withthe learning process (Belgrave &amp Brevard,2014). Some of the ways of increasing the performances includecreating visual and graphical presentations of the activities inclass. In some instances, the learning process involves acting outsome sections of the reading material as a means of enhancing theunderstanding of the boys (Belgrave &ampBrevard, 2014).

The parents and teachers should also assist the boys to identifytheir passions towards given tasks. The learning material should,therefore, be based on the need to identify individual needs andpreferences of the learners.

Single-Sex Classroom

Single-sex education is the process of teaching boys and girls inseparate classrooms. The research on the success of males insingle-sex classes is limited (Pahlke, Hyde &amp Allison, 2014).However, personal accounts have indicated that an all-boys class iseasily directed by the teachers in charge due to gender-specificenvironments (Halpem et al., 2011). The advantages that boys canderive from single-sex classrooms are far and diverse and should,therefore, be considered in an attempt to improve the performances ofthe male Latino students.

The single-sex classrooms provide an opportunity for the malestudents to be taught in a style that is more conducive to the boys’teaching (Pahlke, Hyde &amp Allison, 2014). Boys tend to have acompartmentalized brain activity and as a result, they are likely tobe more successful when they are made to focus on a particularactivity for a considerable period (Halpem et al., 2011). This is asopposed to changing the learning environment on a constant basis.Additionally, the part of the brain of the boys that processeslanguage develops at a lesser pace than that of the girls. The formerwill, therefore, excel in a classroom that is full of diagrams andvisual aids (Salomone, 2013).

The single-sex classes also ensure that the sensitive sides of theboys are nurtured (Pahlke, Hyde &amp Allison, 2014). In the mixedclassroom, the teachers are usually focused on ensuring that thefeelings of the girls are not affected. The boys are abandoned insuch circumstances (Halpem et al., 2011). However, in a classroomthat contains boys only, they are given an opportunity to expressthemselves. Rather than have the “sit-down” conversations, theyhave “talking while walking” conversations that are deemed to bemore efficient to the boys (Halpem et al., 2011).

Co-operative Learning

Cooperative learning refers to a teaching strategy in which thestudents are divided into small teams according to their abilities.Each group of students uses various learning activities for thepurpose of improving their capabilities and understanding of the mainsubjects (Millis, 2012). All members of the teams are required tomake a contribution to the education program to ensure that anatmosphere of achievement is created. The boys can derive a lot ofbenefits from this form of learning strategy. The process can bedivided into different steps such as group investigations, STAD(Student Teams-Achievement Divisions), and Jigsaw II (Sharan &ampShachar, 2012).

For the middle school students, this form of learning will providethem with several advantages to enable them to improve their resultsextensively (Sharan &amp Shachar, 2012). To begin, they will develophigher levels of thinking since they will be required to makecontributions during the discussions (Millis, 2012). In addition tothis, student-faculty interactions are enhanced due to familiarity(Sharan &amp Shachar, 2012). The rate of student retention is alsohigh in institutions that utilize this strategy in the learningenvironment. The middle school students that are extensively affectedby truancy will be encouraged to attend school since they will feelas part and parcel of the education process (Sharan &amp Shachar,2012).

Since corporative learning encourages students to be active in theclassroom, the middle school students will develop both oralcommunication and social interaction skills (Sharan &amp Shachar,2012). Such acquisitions may prove to be relevant to the studentsbeyond the classroom environment (Millis, 2012). Students are alsogiven responsibility for education and will, therefore, initiatelearning activities to improve their understanding of the subjectsunder consideration (Sharan &amp Shachar, 2012). Finally, thislearning strategy also facilitates the utilization of alternatestudent assessment techniques. The challenges facing the learnerscan, therefore, be identified and dealt with appropriately (Millis,2012).

Performance of Boys in Math and Science

Past studies have indicated that boys perform relatively better thangirls in math and sciences. According to some experts, the differencebetween the genders is biologically driven. However, most of thereasons for the poor performances in the girls are attributed tosocio-cultural factors. In order to encourage the boys further, thetutors should create an environment in which boys are encouraged tofully utilize their capabilities. The teachers ought to give the boyshigh levels of attention as well as encourage hands-on activitieswithin the class. Boys have been known to thrive in such learningscenarios and will therefore be in a position to excel in both mathand sciences.

Latino Boys

Traditionally, statistics have indicated a low level of achievementamong the Latino boys in academic performances when compared to theCaucasians. As such, the indicators of education attainment, academicachievement and success in school have been significantly lower amongthe male Latino students in the United States (Hemphill, Vanneman &ampRahman, 2011). Such dismal performances are witnessed in the urban,suburban and rural districts of the United States. Additionally,results of various researches indicate that the Latino boys have ahigher probability of being expelled from school as compared tostudents of other ethnic origins (Zambrana, 2011). For this reason,the dropout rates in some of the cities exceed over 50%. A similartrend is witnessed when analyzing the rate of students enrolling ingraduate programs (Thompson &amp Armato, 2012).

There are various barriers that inhibit the ability of most of themale Hispanic students to perform at higher levels (Thompson &ampArmato, 2012). In most instances, these students are forced to beginthe learning process without the appropriate economic and socialresources that would enable them to be at par with other learnerswithin a school environment (Thompson &amp Armato, 2012). Theinitial disparities are also evident in the schools that are illequipped to provide favorable learning environments for the students(Hemphill, Vanneman &amp Rahman, 2011). For such students, the firstchallenge usually arises in the form of immigrant parents and thesocioeconomic status that occurs due to the lack of knowledgeregarding the system of education within the United States (Thompson&amp Armato, 2012). For those who progress through the schoolingsystems, there are various forms of challenges that may curtail theirquest to learn. The major one relates to the lack of necessaryresources that would act as motivational factors to the students(Zambrana, 2011). In most instances the weak relationships betweenthe Hispanic students and their teachers also play a role in therelatively poor performances that are earned by the students at theend of the learning program (Thompson &amp Armato, 2012). Theinitial disadvantages that have been acquired above continue toaccumulate thereby culminating into lower grades by the students atboth the high school and college levels (Lee &amp Klugman, 2013).The same problem is witnessed when assessing the ability of thestudents to attain stable employment (Hemphill, Vanneman &ampRahman, 2011).

In a society in which parents consider attainment of degree as thebenchmark for success and getting work, various mechanisms have beenin place by the education stakeholders to ensure that the necessaryresources are made available (Lee &amp Klugman, 2013). The quest toattend the higher institutions of learning is portrayed in the greatexpectancies by the parents regarding the education of their children(Thompson &amp Armato, 2012). The high educational expectationsexist among all the races and ethnic groups and as such, are notdetermined by either the social and economic resources at thedisposal of the families (Zambrana, 2011). Such educationalperspectives are more dominant among the parents that have attendedhigh school.

Despite research indicating that there are high expectations ofeducation across all races, the Hispanics are the least educated withonly 11% of individuals above 25 years having earned a bachelor’sdegree or higher (Thompson &amp Armato, 2012). This is low whencompared to 17% of blacks and 30% for whites. The Asian Americans arethe highest ranked ethnic group with over 49% of people above 25years having attained a bachelor’s degree or greater. The trend isworse for the Hispanics with research data indicating that more than25% of the Hispanics lack ninth-grade education. However, when theanalysis is conducted based on the country of origin, the outcome islikely to vary to some extent (Thompson &amp Armato, 2012). Theperformance of the Hispanic population is a matter of nationalconcern and it needs to be dealt with efficiently (Fergus, Noguera &ampMartin, 2014). This requires the identification of the prevailingproblems and offering solutions to the challenges that are faced bylearners of Hispanic origin (Fergus, Noguera &amp Martin, 2014).

To improve the performances of the Hispanic students, variousstrategies have been identified (Thompson &amp Armato, 2012). Thesepolicies are divided into different areas such as school leadershipissues, motivation and student identity issues, curriculum focusissues, learning process issues, cultural issues, and teacherperception issue (Fergus, Noguera &amp Martin, 2014).

School Leadership Issues

The first problem that is considered to contribute to the poorperformances of the Hispanic students is the existing disconnectsbetween the school personnel and the Latino students (Zambrana,2011). The most appropriate solution, in this case, would involve thecreation of a culture that supports an equitable outcome for all thestudents in class (Fergus, Noguera &amp Martin, 2014). This wouldinclude the integration of culturally responsive teaching as a way ofpromoting relationships with the students (Zambrana, 2011). The stepwould be composed of strategies such as supporting activities thatare likely to facilitate better relationships and ensure that all theinstructions issued to the students are culturally responsive(Thompson &amp Armato, 2012).

Another school leadership issue is the lack of understanding of thesocial classes. In this case, the solution rests on the ability togain an insight into the social classes and how to respond to suchfactors in particular school related scenarios (Thompson &ampArmato, 2012). The underlying strategy involves providing thelearners with the necessary survival skills within the middle classenvironment. At times, there is little effort made towards addressingthe academic needs of the Hispanic students (Fergus, Noguera &ampMartin, 2014). In order to solve such an issue, it is necessary tore-evaluate the effective instructions that create a supportivelearning environment (Thompson &amp Armato, 2012). Some of thestrategies that can be employed include ensuring that there is aculturally responsive teaching, decreasing remediation and increasingrigor in the learning process, and finally, creating non-negotiableacademic practices that would facilitate an efficient studyingenvironment (Thompson &amp Armato, 2012).

The lack of understanding of the lives and socialization of Hispanicstudents is also deemed as a school leadership strategy (Fergus,Noguera &amp Martin, 2014). There are various solutions to thisproblem. Examples are parent empowerment, building the levels oftrust among the learners, dispelling the existing cultural myths, andreevaluation of the treatment of the students (Zambrana, 2011). Thestrategies to be utilized include having education and resourcecenters, inviting guest speakers, and developing a comprehensiveguidance plan (Thompson &amp Armato, 2012). The lack of appropriaterole models and opportunities may also be one of the issues thataffect the academic success of the Hispanics (Fergus, Noguera &ampMartin, 2014). The creation of committed partnerships to offeropportunities to students of all races may be deemed as one of themost appropriate solutions. The strategy should include mentors,academic coaches, the creations of scholarship programs andrecruitment initiatives (Thompson &amp Armato, 2012). Finally, lackof sensitivity among the school staff may relate to leadershipfailures. Offering professional training to the personnel to empowerthem on cultural sensitivity may prove to be the most appropriatesolution (Fergus, Noguera &amp Martin, 2014). A comprehensiveguidance plan should be utilized in this case (Thompson &amp Armato,2012).

Motivation and Student Identity Issues

In terms of the motivation and student identity issues, there arevarious factors that are taken into consideration (Thompson &ampArmato, 2012). Some of the problems include lack of studentmotivation and confidence among the Hispanic students, and lack ofappropriate role models and mentors (Zambrana, 2011). In order tosolve such issues, there are series of steps to be evaluated(Thompson &amp Armato, 2012). The utilization of unbiased curriculumresources is one of the ways of ensuring that such matters areeffectively curtailed (Fergus, Noguera &amp Martin, 2014). Inaddition to this, the relevant authorities should develop a balancedcurriculum that would provide all the learners with the necessaryopportunities (Thompson &amp Armato, 2012). The provision ofmentoring programs leads to the growth of better relationships basedon the available programs and activities (Fergus, Noguera &ampMartin, 2014). The relevant authorities should also consider tappinginto the community programs with the sole purpose of acquiring newmentors that would then be used to encourage the learners to improvetheir performances in the classroom (Hinshaw &amp Scheffler, 2014).In relation to the peer groups whose influences outweigh therecommendations proposed by the parents and teachers, the mostappropriate solution would be to provide a culture that will supportcollaboration from all the stakeholders in the education sector(Zambrana, 2011). The paradigm shift glorifies academics and highexpectations would also subsequently improve the influence of theteachers and the parents within a given scenario (Hinshaw &ampScheffler, 2014).

Various strategies and best practices can be utilized to provideadditional options to the motivation and student identity issues(Hinshaw &amp Scheffler, 2014). They include knowledge of oneselfand self-affirmations (Zambrana, 2011). Others include studentinterest surveys and conscious discipline. Mentorship programs shouldalso prove to be effective for the learners (Zambrana, 2011). Otherstrategies that would be developed include single-gender classes,having monthly speakers to provide continuous advice to the studentsto encourage them to develop a greater interest in their class work(Hinshaw &amp Scheffler, 2014). Convocation assemblies and studypartners would provide an opportunity for the Latino students toimprove on their academic performances.

Curriculum Focus Issues

These are issues that relate to the development of the mostappropriate curriculum for the students in an attempt to ensure thatthey improve on their performances and develop an additional interestin class work unlike in the past (Zambrana, 2011). Such issuesinclude a disappropriationate number of Hispanics in the learningenvironment. In addition to this, there is a lack of rigor, relevanceand high expectations for the Latino students. Finally, it includesthe absence of both fictional and non-fictional texts that wouldenable the students to identity the experiences and the needs of theHispanic male students (Hinshaw &amp Scheffler, 2014).

The underlying solutions include developing refined placementprocedures that would set the platform for additional evidence of atrue exceptionality (Zambrana, 2011). Others include working towardsthe development of the most appropriate restrictive environment(Hinshaw &amp Scheffler, 2014). In addition to this, there is theneed to access the rigorous curriculum and out of school learningexperiences and focus on the strengths of the students. Avoiding thedeficits would indeed lead to improved performances by the maleHispanic students. Gaining access to the relevant economicempowerment programs is also one of the most effective ways to managethe curriculum focus issues. The need to build a teacher capacitywould enable the learner to identify and use culturally diverse texts(Zambrana, 2011). The final strategy includes teacher training in theconstruction of as well as the use of classroom libraries (Hinshaw &ampScheffler, 2014).

The best practices and options to be utilized in this case wouldinclude co-teaching model and a facilitated model (Fergus, Noguera &ampMartin, 2014). Additionally, they could use springboard, AVID and theimplementation of entrepreneur course (Hinshaw &amp Scheffler,2014). Others are classroom libraries, LEP curriculum, and mediacenter collections. Such options would culminate in improvedperformances by the students (Fergus, Noguera &amp Martin, 2014).These would also eliminate the existing issues relating to the poorperformances of the students.

Learning Process Issues

In this case, the problems that may arise include inconsistency inthe selection of the most appropriate strategies that would addrelevant experiences to the knowledge of the Hispanic male students(Hinshaw &amp Scheffler, 2014). Other differences that may arise mayinclude consistencies in the utilization of the brain-based learningstyles and a disconnect between student language and brain language.The solutions include the provision of consistent and strategicteaching models (Fergus, Noguera &amp Martin, 2014). Additionally,such strategies may be relevant for the improved performances by thestudents (Hinshaw &amp Scheffler, 2014).

Others include providing the teachers with the relevant training onhow the brain and learning styles integrate, and their influence onthe issuance of instructions (Fergus, Noguera &amp Martin, 2014).Additionally, cooperative learning has been identified as one of theways of increasing the performances of the Hispanic students in theclassroom (Fergus, Noguera &amp Martin, 2014). This worksefficiently for students at all stages of the learning hierarchy.Finally, there is the need to provide teacher training programs thatwould be focused on bridging the gap between culture, gender, andlanguage.

Some of the best practices in offering solutions to the learningprocess issues include the use of thinking maps, understanding bydesign, the development of inquiry methods, and the utilization ofthe creative use of technology (Fergus, Noguera &amp Martin, 2014).Other strategies that may prove to be effective in this case includesingle gender classes, Kagan structures, and brain-based inventory.In instances whereby there is a disconnect between the student andacademic languages, there is the need for language negotiations andthe identification of knowledge relating to hidden rules (Hinshaw &ampScheffler, 2014).

Cultural Issues

These are factors that relate to the nature of relationships betweendifferent groups of individuals based on their beliefs and points oforigin (Fergus, Noguera &amp Martin, 2014). The particular issuesthat are likely to arise in this case include the underutilization ofthe adults for academic support of students outside of instructions,lack of a pleasant welcoming environment, the lack of opportunitiesfor students to connect with the community as a way of having a senseof belonging, and finally the students that are distracted from theiracademics due to the existence of family issues.

The solutions to such issues include the need to utilize informalnetworks as a means of improving opportunities for the learners aswell as the identification of essentials that should be madeavailable at all the institutions to facilitate the learning process(Hinshaw &amp Scheffler, 2014). Additionally, programs that arebased on the identified needs of the communities should beimplemented (Fergus, Noguera &amp Martin, 2014). Finally, thereshould be a provision of information relating to governmentalservices beyond the school environment as well as the role ofparental empowerment (Hinshaw &amp Scheffler, 2014).

Such solutions can be obtained by using the following strategiesworkshops, mentorship programs, and tutoring sessions during schools.The institutions may also partner with other community organizationsto support the progress being made by the learners (Fergus, Noguera &ampMartin, 2014). The development of a comprehensive guidance plan isalso significant since it would facilitate the improved performancesby the students. Finally, resource centers should be opened toprovide the students with the relevant learning materials in the longrun (Fergus, Noguera &amp Martin, 2014).

Teacher Perception Issues

Teachers play a major role in the development of students (Hinshaw &ampScheffler, 2014). Their attitude towards the students is, therefore,likely to have a significant impact on the success or failure of astudent (Fergus, Noguera &amp Martin, 2014). Some of the issues thatrelate to this topic include inequitable discipline among theteaching staff, lack of understanding of the cultural norms of thestudents and incidences of racial stereotypes. To eliminate theoccurrences of such challenges in the learning process, there shouldbe increased focus and adherence to the code of student conduct andelimination of all stereotyping of cultures (Fergus, Noguera &ampMartin, 2014). There should also be increased cultural familiarityand teaching of collective values as well as respect. Finally, theworking staff should reflect the face of the student population(Hinshaw &amp Scheffler, 2014).

Various strategies can be implemented to promote success among theLatino boys in school. They include the development of a network ofsupport as well benchmarks to track the progress of such students(Marrs &amp Sigler, 2012). In addition to this, equal resourcesshould be provided to all students to facilitate improvements ontheir performances in school. Creating awareness among the learnersallows them to have an understanding on what is expected of them inthe long run. Past data can be used to highlight the trend that hasbeen followed by the Latino students over the years and encouragethem to focus on academic as a means of improving other areas oftheir lives (Marrs &amp Sigler, 2012). Additional, through thecreation of awareness, a unique connection can be created betweeneducational outcomes by the Latino Students and their presence in thehigh demanding fields.

Another strategy that can be utilized involves developing a networkof support for the students. This can be achieved by using thepolitical and community leaders as well as organizations that arefocusing on promoting the success of the Latino (Marrs &amp Sigler,2012). In this case too, past data can be used to highlight thedeficit of Latinos in some sectors of the economy and why they needto work exceptionally well to fill any existing shortages as a way ofensuring that they are at par with other racial groups. The creationof such networks can also be utilized in harnessing the support andexpertise of individuals and organizations that can offer support tofacilitate the educational success of the male Latino (Marrs &ampSigler, 2012).

Finally, there is the need to develop key benchmarks to be used intracking the performances of the Latino male students. Such criteriashould be tied to the objectives of the learners in their quest tomeet the desirable targets in school (Marrs &amp Sigler, 2012). Anevaluation model is also appropriate in ensuring that the studentsare monitored, and limitations are eliminated at the earliest stage.From there on, the students should be encouraged to adhere to thechange model that has been developed for them so as to be able toanalyze the importance of the learning programs (Marrs &amp Sigler,2012).

Boys of Poverty

The economic situation of a student may impact on their performancein the classroom (Jensen, 2013). Over the years various factors havebeen developed with the aim of understanding the role of poverty inthe intellectual development of students (Lacour &amp Tissington,2011). There is a risk factor that is associated with poverty.Psychologists and child development specialists have argued thatbehavioral differences between the learners can be attributed to thecombination of genes and the environment in which such individualsreside (Oriakhi, Osagiobare &amp Omogbai, 2013). The majorvariations that may be credited to poverty among students includehealth and nutrition, vocabulary, efforts, variations in hope andgrowth of the mindset, cognition, relationships, and distress (Lacour&amp Tissington, 2011).

Students from the underprivileged background are less likely toexercise and receive the most appropriate medical conditions oncethey are diagnosed (Jensen, 2013). Nutrition also plays a massiverole in the development of an individual. This starts even when oneis still in the womb. Deprived nutrition will, therefore, have animpact on the children’s brains through the gray matter (Oriakhi,Osagiobare &amp Omogbai, 2013). Students who have such nutrition anddiets will find it extensively difficult to concentrate in class.Their behaviors are also affected (Lacour &amp Tissington, 2011).The level of vocabulary among the students from the low socioeconomicconditions is lesser than that of the middle-class students. Sincemost students do not want to feel inferior in front of their peers,most of them will decide to keep quiet and not participate in theclass discussion (Oriakhi, Osagiobare &amp Omogbai, 2013).

Students from the inferior economic backgrounds are likely to havelower scores than those from improved backgrounds. This is inrelation to the tests of intelligence and academic achievement(Jensen, 2013). The economically challenged students are likely toshow cognitive problems, short attention spans and difficulties inmonitoring their work in the classroom. Learners from less privilegedfamilies are also likely to develop a negative opinion towards growthof the mind and body (Oriakhi, Osagiobare &amp Omogbai, 2013). Theirfutures are filled with more doubts and uncertainty than those fromwell-to-do backgrounds. This level of hopelessness is likely toaffect their performances in the classroom (Jensen, 2013). Sincerelationships are important to the success of students in any givenenvironment, children without parents are likely to have chaoticexperiences (Sleek, n.d). In addition to this, the development oftheir brains is curtailed since they are stressed (Lacour &ampTissington, 2011). The low income parents may also deem it difficultto adjust to the needs of their children. The flexible nature of thewealthy parents may motivate their children to perform better inschool (Jensen, 2013). Various strategies should be in place toensure that the boys from underprivileged backgrounds are given anopportunity to improve their performances in school. They are thefollowing:

1. There is the need to increase investments in education for thepoor children. This is because of evidence in long-term improvementsamong such children should they be given achievement test scores froman early age (Hopson &amp Lee, 2011). Additionally, such investmentsshould be made to the education sector since the society currentlyfocuses less on the cognitive developments of the young ones(Plourde, 2011).

2. Parents and educationists should take advantage of the No ChildLeft Behind (NCLB) program to ensure that all students are given anopportunity to learn irrespective of the economic abilities (Hopson &ampLee, 2011). This program encourages the provision of equalopportunities for all learners to be admitted in school (Farooq etal., 2011).

3. The educators should be provided with incentives to identify themost appropriate instructional regimes that would be utilized inuplifting the stature of the children from poor economic backgrounds(Farooq et al., 2011). In this regard, the relevant academicauthorities should ensure that disadvantaged schools that have failedthe recent accountability systems adopt policies with a strong baseresearch (Hopson &amp Lee, 2011).

Conclusions

The success of boys has been abandoned for a given time due to theattention that girl-child education has attracted. In the earlieryears, male supremacy had resulted in negligence of the femalegender. However, with time, that changed and more emphasis was placedon strategies aimed at uplifting the girls. This paper highlighteddifferent strategies that may be put in place in order to ensure thesuccess of boys within a classroom. Though some of the solutions areunique to specific groups of students, others are applicable to boththe male and female students irrespective of the race, economiccapabilities or geographical locations.

In the middle school, various changes can be made to the learningenvironment to facilitate education among the students. Distinctstrategies can be utilized to ensure that the male students have agrasp the learning content. From the outcomes, it is evident thatboys perform better than girls in math and sciences. However, morefocus needs to be placed on languages and arts where they seem to lagbehind. The success of the Latino boys is also given significance inthe paper. It is established that the society has a massive role toplay in the success of such students through empowerment initiatives.In addition to creating a favorable school-student rapport, thesestudents need role models to look up to. They should be encouraged tofocus on their studies through the use of past data that have shownlittle effort form the Latino community with regards to some areas ofcorporate world. Poverty has also been found to influence theperformance of students. However, this can be corrected by providingequal opportunities for the learners irrespective of their social andeconomic backgrounds. The No Child Left Behind initiative has gone along way in offering an opportunity to the underprivileged childrento pursue their studies.

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