British,French, and Spanish Imperial Goals in North America between 1580 and1763
British,French, and Spanish Imperial Goals in North America between 1580 and1763.
Thegrand goals of the French, Spanish, and British in North America from1580 to 1763 were the same in that all these European countrieswanted to take the commerce and wealth provided by the New World.These states used imperialism to heighten their territory, influence,and authority of their respective country. However, they alsodiffered regarding the imperialistic goals, particularly concerningreligion. As the British championed asylum, the Spanish and Frenchwanted to acquire converts. Furthermore, the relations these nationssought to form with the natives varied drastically. Therefore, duringthis period, the three countries showed similarities in some aspectsand differences in others. This paper will illustrate the differinggoals in North America between 1580 and 1763. Additionally, it willentail the imperial goals that seemed to be the same during this era[ CITATION Gos15 l 1033 ].
of the French Imperial Goals
Similarto the Spanish, the French’s aim was to discover land. They aimedat finding land with the hope that minerals such as gold will be inabundance. Apart from that, they hoped to find a shortcut thatconnects to Asia. Before this era began, the French had sent anexplorer i.e. Giovanni Verrazano in 1524 to seek a northwest channelto Asia. Also, another explorer Jacques Cartier sailed across St.Lawrence River in pursuit of a rumored rich realm. This was back in1543. Moreover, similar to the Spanish, the French missionariesattempted to change the Native Americans to Roman Catholics. TheFrench also went on to construct permanent settlements just liketheir Spanish counterparts. However, unlike the Spanish, the Frenchcontingent occupied the least hospitable areas i.e. the northernclimate. The government of France offered limited incentives to thepeople who settled in the cold region. Due to this, the French peoplehad limited effect on the natives as compared to the Spanish. NewFrance was sparsely populated since very few French colonizers movedto North America [ CITATION Dus13 l 1033 ].
Mostof the French arrivals seemed to be single. They were always on themove with very few of them appearing to settle. Up until 1608, theFrench had not made serious inroads in North America. During thisyear, they acquired productive properties in North America likeBeaver pelts that had high demands in Europe. As a matter of fact,Quebec City was colonized in that same year due to this trade. Tofurther show their strength, the French administration declared thatonly Roman Catholicism would be exercised in New France from 1625.Though the Jesuits tried to Christianize the region in 1630, it nevermaterialized. With the plan to make New France permanent, Women werebrought in plenty to offer the supply of wives. In fact, largefamilies were prized by one of the ministers, named Colbert. Theexpansion of the French colonies into the interior restricted theBritish to occupy the eastern regions of the Appalachians. However,the year 1713 marked a turning point for the French. Due to theTreaty of Utrecht and Spanish Succession War, the French lost muchground to the British. They relinquished control of Nova Scotia andNewfoundland to the British. The Louisburg fortress that was owned bythe French was captured by the British who continued to outnumber theFrench regarding territorial boundaries. By 1763, the French had nokey territorial assets in North America. This is because the Spanishoccupied the western regions of Mississippi while the British claimedthe eastern sides [ CITATION Dus13 l 1033 ].
of the British Imperial Goals
Thedisputes between the Protestants and Catholics halted Britain’sexploration and settlement. However, after it was resolved, theBritish quickly caught up with the rest of the contingent i.e.Spanish and French. This was further propelled by the 1588 conquestof the Spanish Armada. Just like their French counterparts, theEnglish navigated into the world to look for a shortcut to Asia.Apart from that the English aimed at generating profits for investorsthrough the acquisition of new raw materials to boost the country’seconomy. They also indulged in mercantilism that entailedaccumulation of wealth, that is, establishing colonies, preciousmetals, and maintenance of positive trade equilibrium between thecolonies and the home country [ CITATION The13 l 1033 ].
Therivalry between France and Britain escalated in North America just asit was in Europe. Continental wars became common between Britain andFrance and to some extent Spain for long periods. Since eachCountry’s Imperial aim was to become the domineering figure inNorth America, they clashed for control over the continent. The warsincluded War of the Spanish Succession (1702 – 1713), War of theAustralian Succession (1744 – 1748), War of the League of Augsburg(1689 – 1697), and War of Jenkins’s Ear (1739 – 1748) among others[ CITATION Gos15 l 1033 ].
of the Spanish Imperial Goals
TheSpanish were the most vital colonial figures in the 16th century.Initially, Spain aimed at exploring the globe to discover mineralwealth to benefit their country. They wanted a channel to the FarEast. In possession of advanced weaponry, the Spanish were quiteruthless. Their initial goal was the discovery of precious metalswithout necessarily colonizing. In 1580, the Spanish imperial goalwas to defend mercantilist policies so that all its rewards could bereserved. They focused on extracting Peruvian and Mexican mineralsand transporting it to Europe [ CITATION Dus13 l 1033 ].
Theirsecond goal entailed the creation of a mixture of Spanish and Indianculture. Therefore, they enslaved the Native Americans. Spainestablished a permanent settlement after the other European nationsdisplayed interest in North America. However, the 1588 conquest ofthe Spanish Armada weakened them. In the 1640s, Spain continued tofade after their economic benefits declined. Their imperial goalchanged to maintaining rather than expanding their territories inNorth America [ CITATION The13 l 1033 ].
Imperialgoals of the French, British, and Spanish
Allthese countries looked to capture commerce and wealth in NorthAmerica. Britain’s imperial goal was to use North America as a wayof acquiring raw materials like lumber to be refined into goods backin England. Likewise, the French aimed at capturing productive furtrade within North Eastern America. The Spanish, on the other hand,obtained valuable minerals like gold and silver. Initially, theFrench and English were in search of gold in North America only torealize that it did not exist within their territories. Theirimperial goals hence shifted in a means to gain commerce and wealthin the continent. The three nations aimed at utilizing theirsovereign assets for agricultural supplies. The English utilizedtheir colonies to transport their cash crops like tobacco and wheatto England. Likewise, the Spanish and the French through theircolonies established large plantations for the production of cotton,rice, and sugar that were transported to Europe. The three countriesimperialistic goals were similar in that they were all driven towardseconomic gains. They had a notion that the globe’s treasures werefinite. Their imperial goals also seem to be the same since they allwanted to heighten their authority [ CITATION Dus13 l 1033 ].
Thethree nations contrasted in the manner they treated the natives. TheEnglish isolated themselves from the natives as typified by theirbuilding of the forts. Whereas, the French integrated with thenatives, particularly the Algonquin so that they could access the furtrade. On the other hand, Spain contrasted the others with theirexploitation of the natives. They made them work and even die in thesugar plantations. The three nations also differed regarding thereligious cultures [ CITATION Dus13 l 1033 ].
Arago, G. (2015, September 10). How did the economic and imperial goals of the Spanish, French, Dutch, and British colonizers shape their colonies? Retrieved from https://www.quora.com/How-did-the-economic-and-imperial-goals-of-the-Spanish-French-Dutch-and-British-colonizers-shape-their-colonies
Messner, D. (2013, October 17). Imperial Goals of the British, French, and Spanish. Retrieved from http://dustinsapush.blogspot.co.ke/2013/10/imperial-goals-of-british-french-and.html
Sackrison, S. (2013, November 17). The Imperial Goals of British, French and Spanish in North America between 1580 and 1763. Retrieved from http://vintageapush2013.blogspot.co.ke/2013/11/compare-and-contrast-imperial-goals-of.html