Case Study Case Study




LevelA: Case 3 Summary

Fluencyis the ability to read or decode words quickly and accurately withthe proper expression without any evident mental effort. Per our casestudy, Emma, a 5th-grade student experiences difficulty in fluency.She is shy and reads aloud, softly, and slowly waiting to say a wordaloud until she can eventually pronounce it. She is struggling inevery academic discipline that needs a lot of reading. Students suchas Emma, who have not developed fluency, usually read slowly and wordby word. Therefore, they require more practice with speed andsmoothness in reading to improve their fluency. This method can beachieved through support from parents and teachers as portrayed byMr. Haywood when he implements strategies to help Emma read fluently(Paulsen &amp the IRIS Center, 2004). Therefore, fluency plays avital role in enabling readers especially young students increasetheir level of comprehending, expanding their vocabulary, andcompleting their reading exercise more conveniently.


Theweakness that students encounter for not being fluent is havingdifficulty in recognizing words as well as decoding them. Fluentreaders focus their attention on what the word means rather thandecoding them. Thus, fluent readers recognize words and comprehendthem at the same time. Concerning the case study, Emma has difficultyin fluency as she reads sensitively and unhurriedly, pausing to reada word aloud until she can pronounce it quickly (Paulsen &amp theIRIS Center, 2004). Teachers play a very helpful task in improvingthe student’s fluency. They usually do this by displaying tostudents how accurate reading at a reasonable speed can beaccomplished with thoughtful expressions.

Teachersshould be able to select and deliver strategies to enhance the speed,accuracy, and fluency of the students while reading. As a result, theinstructors should set achievable fluency goals to promote readingskills. Referring to our case study, Emma’s teacher Mr. Haywoodimplemented two possible strategies that would help Emma improve herfluency in reading aloud with expressions and without showingnoticeable efforts (Paulsen &amp the IRIS Center, 2004). Thepossible strategies include peer tutoring and repeated readings


Bydefinition, peer tutoring is a form of a student partnership, wherebylearners work together for structured reading to master academicskills. Peer tutoring offers useful reading support to many studentswith poor reading skills. It is an evidence-based procedure forimproving academic performance and social enhancement. It can beeither cross-age where partners can be of the same or different ages(Paulsen &amp the IRIS Center, 2004). Peer education involves seniorscholars serving as tutors for younger students. The other one isclass-wide peer teaching, which includes dividing the entire classinto groups of students with differing ability levels. Besides, it ismore efficient when working with groups of students who have adifferent instructional level. As a result, it increases theiropportunities to practice various learning skills.


Manystudents have difficulty achieving reading fluency. Most of thefourth graders are usually not fluent readers. Repeated reading isalso referred to as re-reading, and this form of studying cultivatesan individual’s fluency. Consequently, the students are capable ofskimming words, accurately, and with proper expressions withoutnoticeable mental effort. Thus, by Emma practicing how to readfrequently, she can develop spelling skills as a result improving herfluency when reading (Paulsen &amp the IRIS Center, 2004).Additionally, the technique boosts comprehension, whereby thestudents can understand texts with ease hence expanding theirvocabulary conveniently. Thus, this is the fact that when similarwords are repeatedly presented in the same context, they enable thebrain to develop a pattern and recall the information moreaccurately. Accordingly, repeated reading helps individuals developdecoding skills leading to people improving their spelling abilities.

ShortPassage from the 5thGrade Basal Series

The“Big Mose” story found in the basal series can help a fifth gradelearner develop spelling, reading, and comprehension skills. Thestory is about a fireman called Moses, who resided in New York duringthe early 1800s. The protagonist in the story was strong, big, andtall hence the nickname “Big Mose”. The story narrates how he duga tunnel from the Hudson River to put out a fire that wasoverpowering the other firemen (Gave, 2004). Therefore, since Emma’sfluency is not at the level of most 5th graders, the passage can behelpful in enhancing her reading skills. Thus, because Emma has a lowself-concept she reads aloud and softy. As such, I would use thepassage to encourage her to practice her reading skills until shedevelops fluency. By Emma practicing previously taught skills throughindependent reading of the passage, she would get encouraged and gainself-confidence, as a result improving her reading skills.

LevelB: Case 2 Summary

Basedon this case, we encounter Mary, who is a 3rd grader studying in aprivate school, and she is experiencing difficulty in decodingunfamiliar multi-syllable words. Likewise, Mary’s classmates arefacing a similar experience. Each syllable contains at least onevowel with or without the supporting constant sound. Therefore, asyllable is a unit of pronunciation hence multi-syllable is a wordhaving more than one syllable. Multi-syllable words are complicatedto read when compared to short ones. Therefore, students are requiredto use a more advanced strategy to read the multi-syllable words(Paulsen &amp the IRIS Center, 2004). For this reason, it is vitalto read the English words effectively since the majority of the termsare multi-syllable, which is a challenge to Mary and the rest of herclassmates. Hence, Mr. Bounds has opted to employ strategies heobtained from a special education professional conference to help hisclass.


Theconceivable strategies here include independent practice anddecoding. Students with a decoding disability such as Mary havedifficulty matching sounds and letters. Hence, this can affect theirinterpretation and meaning, as well as experience problems in readingand spelling phonetically. Decoding is the capacity to utilize one`sknowledge of letter sounds correlation and knowledge of letterpatterns to pronounce written words correctly. After understandingthis relationship, the students can identify the familiar words withease (Paulsen &amp the IRIS Center, 2004). Referring to the studycase, Mary together with her classmates has difficulty decoding theunfamiliar multi-syllable words.

Assuch, teachers should be sure to begin the systematic and explicitphonics instructions early. Also, teachers should assist students tounderstand the purpose of phonics by engaging them in reading andwriting activities that require the application of phonics (Paulsen &ampthe IRIS Center, 2004). Based on the case study, Mr. Boundsimplemented decoding lessons each day, to assist all his learners togain the capacity to recognize unfamiliar multi-syllable words. Thepossible strategies implemented include independent practice anddecoding.

Rationalefor Using the Strategies

Oneof the strategies to help learners like Mary is independencetraining, which gives the students an opportunity to rehearse thepreviously taught skills. Through this, Mary can learn the readingskills since independent practice allows students the chance toexercise strategies they have learned through guided reading andteacher read aloud. As a result, Mary together with her classmateswill view learning as a priority when they have some ownership in thereading activity (Paulsen &amp the IRIS Center, 2004). Secondly, isthe decoding strategy, which involves the ability in identifyingwords including phonetic cues. Also, the students develop spellingskills after acquiring capabilities in decoding. Through this, Maryand her classmates avoid experiencing difficulty in decodingunfamiliar multi-syllable words. Moreover, the process of decodingwords provides students with the opportunities to practice theirnewly learned strategies (Paulsen &amp the IRIS Center, 2004).Therefore, the independent practice and decoding activities offer thestudents the ability to learn the reading skills.

HowMary Would Benefit

Withindependence training, Mary can rehearse whatever she learns atschool. Hence, this will help her gain self-confidence when it comesto reading since she will feel self-assured when it comes to reading.Accordingly, this is for the fact that she feels that she has theownership and control when reading. Furthermore, the decodingapproach will help her improve her spelling skills.

Involvementof Mary’s Parents

Teachingchildren can be frustrating to both the parents and the children aswell. However through practice the frustration can be avoided hencethe children becoming thriving readers. Based on my opinion, I wouldinvolve Mary’s parents on helping her recognizing the unfamiliarmulti-syllable words. Using decoding as one of the strategy, I wouldinvolve Mary’s parents to support her through various activities athome. Since Mary is having decoding difficulties her parents shouldhave her reread passages, vocabularies, and words at home eachevening after school and during weekends. This gives Mary practice inreading new words and as a result allowing her to understand themeaning of the words.

LevelC: Case 1 Summary

Nathan,who is a nine-and-half-years 4th grader may be described as being anassertive student, whose social and communication training skillswould assist him, and his classmates gain confidence and self-esteem.He also does well in the subjects of sciences and social studies whenhands-on activities are introduced or when material are read aloud.However, based on the case study, Nathan has difficulty in decodingthe unfamiliar words and he is unable to read the sight words. As aresult, Nathan would improve his communication skills as well ascreating an honest relationship between him and his parents andteachers when appropriate approaches are introduced in his learning.Consequently, an assertive pupil is usually confident, and this candefine one’s personality. Hence, when it comes to reading, aself-confident person composes words logically. Therefore,assertiveness reflects buoyancy and due to this Nathan is motivatedto become a better reader. Because Nathan has a positive attitude inreading, listening, and participating during classes, this shows howwilling he is to compromise as necessary to achieve higher goals(Paulsen &amp the IRIS Center, 2004). For this reason, I havedeveloped three goals for Nathan inclusive of reading forinformation, gaining fluency, and reading for meaning.


Readingfor Information

Toenhance the information the students hear and use, teachers shouldintroduce the utilization of a variety of oral activities and readaloud. Children or students struggle with reading activity due tolack of critical skills concerning phonics and comprehension. Theneed to learn aspires to empower and embolden students withinformation. As fourth graders, the students are expected to gainknowledge through reading. At this level, they should be diverse inthat they can conduct research using various sources such as theinternet, textbooks, and magazines. As a teacher or a parent, oneshould encourage the students to confirm their understandingcapabilities if they can comprehend the whole text. Therefore, theindependent practice can assist students to read for information withthe guidance of parents and instructors.

Readingfor Meaning

Lackof familiarity with the content is a challenge for most of thestruggling readers since they lack comprehension skills. Somestudents experience difficulty in processing and memorizinginformation. Reading for meaning is vital despite the fact thatmemorization can be a challenge to the struggling readers.Consequently, at this level, the students are expected to be able tosummarize the main point of a story. On the other hand, at thislevel, the students read and at the same time have the answers to thecomprehension question. The best way a teacher can improve the skillof reading for meaning is to read aloud to the students. The decodingstrategy is applied to unfamiliar words. Based on our case studylevel C, Nathan has difficulty in decoding the foreign words and notbeing able to read the sight words (Paulsen &amp the IRIS Center,2004). It is evidenced that through practice and re-reading Nathancan improve on his reading struggles.


Lackof fluency is the inability to transfer information to new settinglimits of comprehension reading skills for poor readers. Whenstudents struggle with reading, they stumble on words, hence limitingtheir command of passage. As such, allowing children or students getinvolved in various listening activities will help in improving theirfluency, accuracy, and correct expressions while reading. Referringto our case study, Nathan has difficulty in fluency, whereby he canonly read 55 words per minutes, while at this level, he is expectedto read 79-128 words per minute. As a result, Nathan should haveachievable fluency goals to promote his reading skills.


Gave,M. (2004). ComprehensiveReading Assessment.Merrimack,NH. OptionsPublishing Inc.

Paulsen,K., &amp the IRIS Center. (2004). Fluencyand word identification:Grades3–5.Retrieved on [Sep, 11, 2016] from