Cholera in Developing Countries

Cholerain Developing Countries

Cholerain Developing Countries

Cholerais a common disease experienced mainly in developing countries thisis an infection caused by bacteria commonly known as Vibriocholeraewhich affects the small intestines (Charles &amp Ryan, 2011).Through research, scientists have found out that the primary cause ofthe commencement of this disease is the consumption of dirty food,water or even consuming clean food with dirty hands. According tostatistics, if not treated, cholera can kill an infected personwithin hours. Every year an approximate of 142000 people die of thisdisease worldwide with the developing countries having the majorityof the deaths. Cholera is a disease that does not segregate it canbe contracted by people of all ages. The bacteria causing cholera canbe transmitted through water that is contaminated by Vibrio Choleraecausing an outbreak in a particular area.

Manyparts of Africa have often had to deal with the outbreak of choleradue to poor drainage systems that allow local people to consume waterthat is unsafe for human consumption. For instance, in countrieswhere people fetch water from rivers where the rivers are also abathing site and a temporal toilet, increase the chances of thecontamination of water hence an outbreak of the disease. If aninfected person relieves themselves and leaves the stool to go downthe river, anyone who takes the water, however clean it may seem maybe at risk of contracting the disease (Charles&amp Ryan, 2011).

Accordingto Choe and Raschky (2016), contaminated food that is hawked aroundthe streets without proper hygiene measures may be dangerous forconsumption. It is unfortunate that many people are ignorant ofhygiene standards. People tend to judge the food they eat from theoutside appearance without actually putting into consideration thehidden germs that may cause harm to their bodies.Manyof these germs and viruses are microscopic, not visible with thenaked human eye, but may be viewed via microscopic tools.

Thereare several symptoms that come with the contraction of this disease.They include severe watery diarrhea that is accompanied with a lotof vomiting that sometimes leads to dehydration of the body. Someinfected people do not show immediate signs of the symptoms however,as the bacterium continues staying in the body, the symptoms beginappearing causing discomfort. The people who do not show any symptomsmay be at risk of spreading the disease faster than those who alreadyknow their status (Charles&amp Ryan, 2011). Otherssymptoms include rapid heart rate, low blood pressure, musclecramps, dry mucous membranes that include the throat, mouth, eyelidsand nose. If treatment is not sought immediately, dehydration maytake place quickly leading to shock and eventually death.

Manyof the developing countries often suffer from cases of cholera due tountreated sewage or water meant for consumption. A majority of thedeveloped countries have put systems in place to cater for thetreatment of waste materials from human waste, and their water isthoroughly purified before being dispatched to the various depots forconsumption. When cases of cholera occur under such areas, a majorityof the cases are linked to individual negligence to observing hygienemeasures (Charles&amp Ryan, 2011).First world countries budget for such requirement of treating waterbecause water is considered to be an essential commodity to theexistence of life.

Incase one suspects that all is not well with their bodies, visitingthe nearest healthcare facility is the first option to opt for. It isat the center that diagnosis will be made and commencement oftreatment available. To test for cholera, a sample of the stool or aswab on the rectum is taken and sent to the laboratory to check forcholera bacterium (WorldHealth Organization, 2012).

Successfultreatment of cholera begins by replacing the fluid and salts thatwere lost during diarrhea and vomiting. Since dehydration isdangerous, dealing with that condition is crucial before catering forother needs. With prompt rehydration, few patients are at risk ofdying hence can proceed with treatment having assisted them to bedanger-free. Patients have an option of being treated with oralrehydration or using a prepackaged mixture of both sugar and saltsthat are mixed with water which is drunk in large amounts (Lozanoet al., 2012).)This solution is recommended by medical specialists hence used acrossthe world a patient in a developed country and another in developingcountries both have access to same treatment. Patients with severecases often require intravenous fluid replacement. Antibiotics aresometimes used to reduce the severity of the illness but are oftennot regarded as important as rehydration.

Peopleoften ask whether there is any relation between water supply andcholera yes there is a relation. When the water supply is limited,people tend to use the water sparingly often recycling to diminishcases of lack during this process, a lot of germs are transmitted tothe water making it dirty hence contaminated. Cases of poorsanitation with limited water make the condition worse as the humanwaste is often directed to the rivers which unfortunately are thepoint of water collection for consumption purposes.Incases where there is plenty of water, most often the sanitation issueis normally sorted enabling the people to consume clean water withproper hygiene.

Thepublic health officers in collaboration with the government of aparticular country often assist citizens to reduce and curb thechallenge of fighting cholera disease by first sensitizing theircitizens about the existence of this disease and educating them onpreventive measures like hygiene and the need to consume clean water.Many suffer due to lack of knowledge while others due to inadequateresources to help afford quality living (WorldHealth Organization, 2012).It is the mandate of the government of a nation to ensure propersanitation is available for its people. This is possiblecollaborating with contractors to ensure that houses built are ingood condition and fit for human settlement this includes thesanitation aspect.

Conclusion

Cholerais a deadly disease that requires attention as its effects areadverse. It is a disease that is rampant in many developingcountries however, some developed countries also experience fewcases of the same. Cholera is mainly characterized by symptoms ofwatery diarrhea and vomiting. Other symptoms include dehydration andbody cramping or even death. It is highly recommended to immediatelyseek medical attention if any of these symptoms are visible. Promptaction is advisable as this disease can be fatal if treatment is notsought. The diagnosis before treatment involves running testsinvolving the human stool to identify the bacteria present beforetreatment commences. The best way of handling and preventing cholerais simply taking hygiene measures and consuming clean water.

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References

Charles,R. C., &amp Ryan, E. T. (2011). Cholera in the 21st century. Currentopinion in infectious diseases,24(5),472-477.

Choe,Chongwoo Raschky, Paul A. (January 2016). &quotMedia,institutions, and government action: prevention vs. palliation in thetime of cholera&quot.EuropeanJournal of Political Economy.Elsevier.

LozanoR, Naghavi M, Foreman K, Lim S, Shibuya K, Aboyans V, Abraham J,Adair T, Aggarwal R, Ahn SY, et al. ( 2012). &quotGlobal andregional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of DiseaseStudy 2010&quot. Lancet

WorldHealth Organization. (2012). The world health report: a safer future:global public health security in the 21st century.