COMMUNITY AND PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING 1
Communityand Public Health Nursing
1. Many nursesleave acute care settings to practice in homes and community-basedareas since the former focus on individual patients (Allender,Warner, & Rector, 2014). In this regard, the families of clientsare often viewed as ancillary. On the other hand, community-basedsettings focus on populations and aggregates. Hence, the publicbecomes the recipient of medical services while health is viewed asthe product (Allender et al., 2014). Furthermore, many nurses areenticed by the interchange between populations and their environment,and how such interaction impacts the community. Additionally, nursesleave acute care settings since they believe that health and illnessare public issues (Allender et al., 2014). Some community issuesinclude the proliferation of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV),pollution-driven environmental hazards, and the rising prevalence andincidence of tuberculosis (TB). Other global concerns comprise theincrease in antibiotic resistance and cardiovascular diseases(Allender et al., 2014). Therefore, nurses endeavor to have a greaterimpact on community health.
2. Public healthpractice promotes a healthful environment by creating favorableeconomic and social conditions. In many instances, people wouldmanifest poor health if they lived in a community with dirty air,expensive food, crowded housing, and high unemployment (Allender etal., 2014). Other unhealthy activities include smoking, unsafe sex,drug use, and binge drinking. On the other hand, acute care practiceaddresses the factors that affect individual patients. Furthermore,public health practice targets all who could benefit from aparticular service or activity (Allender et al., 2014). Such effortsare usually implemented through community surveys and outreachprograms. However, acute care practice provides services to patientswho go to hospitals and other treatment facilities. Besides, publichealth practice incorporates input from other stakeholder groups,professions, organizations, and populations (Allender et al., 2014).Consequently, comprehensive plans are adopted to promote and protectcommunity wellness. Nevertheless, acute care practice uses theexpertise of individual practitioners.
3. Public healthnursing directs services to the whole population while primary carefocuses on an individual. Besides, public health nursing seeks thegreatest benefits for the highest number of people while primary carepursues the interests of a single patient (Allender et al., 2014).Public health nurses collaborate with the community as equalpartners. Hence, both parties contribute their expertise, values, andbeliefs to the partnership. Mutual respect and consideration lead topolicy development and assurance (Allender et al., 2014). On theother hand, primary care nursing satisfies the needs of individualclients. Notably, public health nursing prevents medical problems andpromotes higher levels of wellness (Allender et al., 2014). In thisrespect, practitioners search for high-risk groups and examine thefactors that contribute to health problems. Contrariwise, primarycare nursing is primarily concerned with efforts to preventreoccurrence of illnesses and development of complications.
4. Community health nursing focuses on population-based measuresdesigned to improve medical services (Allender et al., 2014). In thisregard, various indicators such as access to health services,environmental quality, social determinants, and substance abuse areused to gauge the public’s wellness. Other factors include oralhealth, reproductive and sexual health, clinical preventive services,mental health, nutrition, physical activity, and obesity (Allender etal., 2014). Community health nursing requires stakeholder groups tocollaborate effectively in identifying population needs, developinggoals and priorities, and agreeing on ways to implement requiredactions (Allender et al., 2014). Moreover, community health nursingensures the optimal utilization of available resources to improve thepublic’s wellbeing. Inevitably, client’s health status andbehavior will remain static unless people incorporate the proposedsolutions (Allender et al., 2014). Therefore, community healthnursing fosters the participation of consumers by promoting theirautonomy. Furthermore, it prioritizes primary prevention during theselection of appropriate activities (Allender et al., 2014).
Allender, J. A., Warner, K. D., & Rector, C. L. (2014). Communityand public health nursing: Promoting the public`s health (8thed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & WilkinsHealth.