Dementia

/Alzheimer’sdisease

is a collection of diseases that results in a gradual reduction inthinking and memory loss. Alzheimer’s disease is among the mostcommon types of vascular dementia. affects brain cells andneurons leading to memory loss and other neural malfunctions(Alz.org,2016). It causes the inability of brain cells to communicate witheach other. Every dementia is associated with damaging of aparticular part of the brain. is progressive, and symptomsintensify with time. Some of the signs include depression, memoryloss, vitamin deficiency and thyroid problems. Risk factors fordementia include age and genetics, which cannot be changed.

Alzheimer’sdiseases

Althoughit accounts for 60% to 80% of all Vascular cases,Alzheimer’s disease is a disorder that affects the cognitive andbehavioral portions of the brain (Healthypeople.gov.2016). It is a progressive disease that leads to memory destructionand mental dysfunction. It affects the brain, mainly the neuralcells. The cerebral cortex which is responsible for memory isaffected. Moderate signs and symptoms include confusion, impairedjudgment, confusion, repetitive behavior and hallucinations. Otherpatients, short attention span and inability to learn new things.Severe signs are weight loss, seizures, excessive sleeping, and lackof bladder control.

Alzheimer’sdisease is associated with the destruction of neurons cerebralcortex. The temporal lobe and parietal lobe are also degenerated. Forthose suffering from this condition, microscopic examination revealsamyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. This disease is due toprotein misfolding which is a result of plaque accumulation. Plaquesare essential brain proteins like amyloid beta and tau. They areessential for normal brain functions like memory retention. Theplaques form in the hippocampus, where memories are encoded.Accumulation of proteins leads to toxicity and disrupts the braincell from normal calcium ion homeostasis and apoptosis.

References

Alz.org.(2016). – Signs, Symptoms, Causes, Tests, Treatment, Care | alz.org.Retrieved 14 September 2016, fromhttp://www.alz.org/what-is-dementia.asp

Healthypeople.gov.(2016). s,Including Alzheimer`s Disease | Healthy People 2020.Retrieved 14 September 2016, fromhttps://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/dementias-including-alzheimers-disease?topicid=7