Dissociation Energy

DissociationEnergy

Instituion’sName

(Fox&amp Whitesell, 2013).

Thebond dissociation energies also abbreviated as BDE shows the amountof energy needed to break a specific bond in a specific molecule,while the calculations of average bond are performed fromexperimental data set with the assumption that all C-H bonds haveequal energy (Fox &amp Whitesell, 2013).

Breakof bonds normally requires heat. This heat energy is termed as bonddissociation energy. The formation of radicals is through hemolyticcleavage. The process through which a bond breaks and leave theelectrons similarly divided between atoms is known as hemolysis andhemolytic cleavage. Species with more than an atom as well asunpaired electron is known as radicals. Free atoms and radicals existas intermediates in trivial centration in various reactions howevercannot be isolated (Fox &amp Whitesell, 2013).

Reactionbetween steam and carbon monoxide gives hydrogen gas and carbondioxide.

  • H2O (g) + CO (g) H2 (g) + CO2 (g)

Wecan achieve the calculation as shown in the diagram

Theroutes can now be equated and the equation solved to get the reactionchange .

ΔH= 1077 + 2(464) – 2(805) – 436

ΔH+ 2(805) + 436 = 1077 + 2(464)

ΔH= -41 kJ mol-1

Reactionbetween ethane and Chlorine

Ethanereacts with chlorine to give hydrogen chloride and chloroethanegases.

Fromthe equation above the bod of Cl-Cl and C-H are broken to create new H-Cl and C-Cl bond (Fliszár,2014).

Theenergy required to break Cl-Cl and C-H is

+243+ 413 = +656 kJ mol-1

Theamount of released energy during the creation of C-Cl as well as H-Clis

-432– 346 = – 778 kJ mol-1

Therefore,the net change is -778 + 656 = -122 kJ mol-1

Thechlorination of 2-methylpropaneunder the presence of UV light gives the following

Cl2 + (CH3)3CH——&gt35% (CH3)2CHCH2Cl+ 65% (CH3)3CCl

Fromthe two steps that create, free radical chain reaction forhalogenation, the first step is a product-determining step (hydrogenabstraction). After the formation of a carbon radical, the nextbonding of a halogen atop occurs only at the radicle site

InitialPhase: &nbsp &nbsp &nbsp X•R3C-H&nbsp&nbsp ——&gt&nbspH-X + R3C•&nbsp

Secondphase: &nbsp &nbsp R3C•&nbsp + &nbsp X2&nbsp ——&gt&nbspX•+ R3C-X&nbsp

R–H&nbsp + &nbsp energy &nbsp ——&gt&nbsp&nbspR•&nbsp+ H•

Thebond decisions energies within alkanes reduces with the progression.

Methane&gt Primary &gt Secondary &gt Tertiary.

References

Fliszár,S. (2014). Atoms,Chemical Bonds and Bond Dissociation Energies.Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Fox,M. A., &amp Whitesell, J. K. (2013). Organicchemistry.Sudbury, Mass. [u.a.: Jones and Bartlett.