Early Intervention in Special Education — The Controversy the Place and Significance of Applied Behavioral Analysis

EarlyIntervention in Special Education — The Controversy the Place andSignificance of Applied Behavioral Analysis

EarlyIntervention in Special Education — The Controversy the Place andSignificance of Applied Behavioral Analysis

AlfieK. (2011). Bribes for Behaving: Why Behaviorism does not helpChildren to become good People. Oxford University Press

Alfie(2011) questions effectiveness of the behaviorism. He asserts theapproaches such as the use of privileges, rewards, and punishment aresimply shortcuts, and that the best approach is to have the behaviorsnurtured from inside a child.

Axelrod,S. (1996). What`s Wrong with Behavior Analysis? Journalof Behavioral Education, 6(3):247-256

Axelrod(1996) discusses the contemporary practices, including earlyinterventions, have ignored the behavioral analysis and this isdespite the fact that it has been beneficial of a vast of fields suchas the occupational safety, experimental psychology, and education.

Becker,W. (1986). Science,Human Values and Teaching-Integrating Polarities.In AppliedPsychology for Teachers. A Behavioral-Cognitive Approach (pp.1-9).Chicago:Science Research Associates

Becker(1986) discusses the problem of streamlining scientific behavioralanalysis methodologies with human values in a way that shunconflicts. He identifies various challenging questions that practiceneeds to consider to resolve implementation issues.

Ronald,A. &amp Hoekstra, R. (2011) Autism Spectrum Disorders and AutisticTraits: A Decade of New Twin Studies. AmJ Med Genet Part B156:255 –274.

Ronaldand Hoekstra (2011) conducted a review of studies on theeffectiveness of ABA in early intervention involving twins withautism. The authors concludes ABA tend to be more effective comparedto other approaches such as DIR.

McPhilemy,C., &amp Dillenburger, K. (2013). Parents` expierences of appliedbehaviour analysis (ABA)- based interventions for children diagnosedwith autistic spectrum disorder. BritishJournal of Special Education,40(4):34-39

McPhilemyand Dillenburger (2013)investigated the outcomes of a group of children with autismsubjected to early ABA intervention programs. The study focused onchildren with the age of around 3 years, following up their progressuntil the children were 6 years old.The study findings laud ABA as an effective intervention.

Dillenburger,K., &amp Keenan, M. (2009). None Of The As In ABA Stand For Autism:Dispelling The Myths. Journalof Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 34(2),193-195.

Dillenburgerand Keenan (2009)investigated the perceptions of parents concerning children behaviorsafter ABA intervention. Their findings showed parents reportedimprovements in their family lives after ABA interventions. Some ofthe achievements included the ability to accompany their parents tothe shopping centers, vacations and restaurants, which wereimpossible because the children had stressful, uncontrolled behaviors

Steege,M., Mace, F., Perry, L., &amp Longenecker, H. (2007). AppliedBehavior Analysis: Beyond Discrete Trial Teaching. Psychologyin theSchools,91-99.

Steege,Mace, Perry and Longenecker (2007) consider the question of a numberof hours that might be needed to achieve a successful ABA for thecase of early intervention. While the session traditionally required40 hours per week, theyacknowledge and question the possibilities of providing effective ABAduring early interventions for just as less as 20 hours a week.

Mace,F &amp Critchfield, T. (2010). &quotTranslationalresearch in behavior analysis: Historical traditions and imperativefor the future&quot.Journalof the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 93(3): 293–312.

Maceand Critchfield (2010)discuss the weaknesses of ABA. Among other notable examples, theystate that it involves the use of discrete trial training thatrequires one to conduct additional procedures to infergeneralizations, while the drills in the ABA training have thetendency to encourage rote responses, they programs are costly.

Marr,M (2009). &quotThenatural selection: behavior analysis as a natural science&quot(PDF). European Journal of Behavior Analysis. 10(2): 103–118.

Marr(2009) discusses the advantages of ABA. They assertABA discipline utilizes objective data to inform the decision-makingprocess about a program. The data is collected based on the progressof individuals and this can be applied to inform decisions.

Waasdorp,T., Bradshaw, C., &amp Leaf, P. ( 2012). &quotTheimpact of schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supportson bullying and peer rejection: a randomized controlled effectivenesstrial&quot. Archivesof Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine.166(2): 149–56.

Waasdorp,Bradshaw and Leaf (2012) reviewsthe studies in favor and against ABA effectiveness. The authors notethat, while some studies show ABA is effective, there are alsovarious studies that have failed to find significant contributions ofABA in early intervention, and thereby invite the question of whatthe efficacy could be, and what to do about it.

References

AlfieK. (2011). Bribes for Behaving: Why Behaviorism does not helpChildren to become good People. Oxford University Press

Axelrod,S. (1996). What`s Wrong with Behavior Analysis? Journalof Behavioral Education, 6(3):247-256

Becker,W. (1986). Science,Human Values and Teaching-Integrating Polarities.In AppliedPsychology for Teachers. A Behavioral-Cognitive Approach (pp.1-9).Chicago:Science Research Associates

Ronald,A. &amp Hoekstra, R. (2011) Autism Spectrum Disorders and AutisticTraits: A Decade of New Twin Studies. AmJ Med Genet Part B156:255 –274.

McPhilemy,C., &amp Dillenburger, K. (2013). Parents` expierences of appliedbehaviour analysis (ABA)- based interventions for children diagnosedwith autistic spectrum disorder. BritishJournal of Special Education,40(4).

Dillenburger,K., &amp Keenan, M. (2009). None Of The As In ABA Stand For Autism:Dispelling The Myths. Journalof Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 34(2),193-195.

Steege,M., Mace, F., Perry, L., &amp Longenecker, H. (2007). AppliedBehavior Analysis: Beyond Discrete Trial Teaching. Psychologyin theSchools,91-99.

Mace,F &amp Critchfield, T. (2010). &quotTranslationalresearch in behavior analysis: Historical traditions and imperativefor the future&quot.Journalof the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 93(3): 293–312.

Marr,M (2009). &quotThenatural selection: behavior analysis as a natural science&quot(PDF). European Journal of Behavior Analysis. 10(2): 103–118.

Waasdorp,T., Bradshaw, C., &amp Leaf, P. ( 2012). &quotTheimpact of schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supportson bullying and peer rejection: a randomized controlled effectivenesstrial&quot. Archivesof Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine.166(2): 149–56.

Assignment3: Outline

  • The importance of Early intervention

  • The effectiveness of methodologies, .i.e. Applied Behvaioral analyisis

  • Aim: To present the question of the significance of ABA as one of the outstanding controversial issue in early intervention.

WhatProponents

  • The associated advantages and weaknesses

    • Allows one to use many, different training trials, it is relatively easy to use and the instruction stimuli and curriculum are elaborate enough to support its implementation in practice

    • Learners understand the targeted responses, while the data collection process is relatively straightforward

    • easy to master targets and assess whether the child is mastering concepts

    • Allows the reinforcers to initiate positive behavioral change that support learning

  • Various supporting studies

TheOpponent

  • The disadvantages

  • Negative studies

  • Limited methodologies and implementation strategies

  • Discrete trial training requires one to conduct additional procedures to infer generalizations

  • Rote memory — the drills in the ABA training have the tendency to encourage rote responses, Programs are costly and the effectiveness of some strategies in ABA of reinforcing behaviors such behaviorism theory been questioned

  • The problem with implementation and even acceptance into mainstream practices

  • Negative findings

Conclusion

  • Purpose restatement

  • Summary

  • Relational remark