ElSalvador, lying in the Central America, is the smallest and yet themost densely populated country in the region. Its capital city, alsothe largest of all its cities, is San Salvador. `s totalpopulation, approximated as of 2015, is 6.38 million. The populationmainly comprises of people with European Mestizos and IndigenousAmerican descent. `s history is documented and mostlypresents it as a country of historical significance and which isrising from its social, economic, and political challenges to becomea fancied nation.
Asdocumented by Boland (2012), for many centuries, was aregion occupied by different Mesoamerican nations, including theMaya, Cuzcatlecs, and the Lenca. However, during the 16th century,the territory was conquered by Spain, which incorporated it into theViceroyalty of New Spain that was ruled from Mexico. The republicwould later achieve independence 1821, becoming the first Mexicanempire until 1823 when it joined other nations to form FederalRepublic of Central America.
Whenthe republic was dissolved in 1841, became a sovereignnation. However, this status was short-lived, paving the way for theestablishment of Greater Republic of Central America union withNicaragua and Honduras that lasted between 1895 and 1898, when itbecame a republic. The country has experienced a challenge ofeconomic and political stability for a relatively long timeattributed to coups, authoritarian rule successions, and revolts.Prevailing social and economic inequalities had caused the 1979–1992Salvadoran Civil Wars that, however, resulted in theinstitutionalization of reforms such as multi-party democracy, whichremains in place until today.
Asfar as its history is concerned, `s economic activitieshave been predominantly agriculture. According to Deborah and Pool(2014), the country was popular for venturing into the indigo plant,which was perceived the most important during the time the countrywas under the Spaniards. However, over time, the focus of agriculturechanged to coffee, which now accounts for a significant percentage ofthe country`s exports. However, the dependency on coffee productionhas been dwindling, and this has come amidst the advocacies foreconomic diversification into manufacturing and trade. The countrycontinues to seek various economic development reforms, for instance,as of 2001, the state replaced its currency, colon, with the USdollar to increase economic competitiveness to attract trade andfinancial investments.
Thecountry prides itself for adopting rapid socio-economic developmentsto join a group of other nations. As of 2010, for instance, ElSalvador was ranked 12th on the list of top Latin American countries,and 4th on the list of top Central America countries with high HumanDevelopment Index. This dramatic improvement in its scores has beenattributed to its rapid industrialization, technological developmentsand social and political reforms. Nonetheless, the high prevalence ofcrimes, socioeconomic disparities, and poverty are the majoroutstanding challenges that the country is grappling with (Tucker,2013).
Inconclusion, , lying in the Central America, is thesmallest and yet the most densely populated country in the region.Its capital city, also the largest of all its cities, is SanSalvador. The country has endured various historical challenges buthas managed to embrace different reforms to meet the social,economic, and political needs of its people. Even so, the countrywill need to address the high prevalence of crimes, socioeconomicdisparities, and poverty, which are its greatest challenges.
Boland,R (2012). Culture and Customsof .Greenwood Publishing Group
DeborahN. & Pool, N (2014). TheOxford Handbook of Mesoamerican Archaeology.Oxford University Press.
Tucker,C. (2013). Changing Forests:Collective Action, Common Property, and Coffee in Honduras.Springer.