The majority of the challenges facing the modern world are linked toglobalization. It refers to the interconnectedness and integration ofpeople, places, societies, and regions through the convergence ofeconomic, social, cultural, and political activities. Nations whichwere traditionally isolated due to distance are increasingly linkedto others due to international trade, information and communicationtechnologies, and ease of travel. Although globalization isinevitable, there are numerous problems associated with it.Consequently, some people have been opposed to social and economicmodels and policies that promote global integration. One of the mostimportant socioeconomic aspects that are related to globalization ispopulation (Rowntree & Price, 2015).
There are over 7.2 billion people living on earth. It is estimatedthat by mid 21st century, the figures will be approachingten billion. The increase will mainly be observed in the sub-SaharanAfrica, while Europe and other parts of the world are expected toshrink. Nonetheless, experts have argued that issues related toprojected changes in populations in the future are complex phenomena(Rowntree & Price, 2015). This is because of several factors thatcome into play. For example, in many countries government haveadopted policies that are aimed at reducing birth rates. Moreover,numerous local or global social and economic dynamics will have hugeimpacts on the projections (Oyevaar et al., 2016).
Although globalization has impacts on basic aspects of population,growth rates vary from one region or nation to another. For example,while developing countries in Asia and Africa will continue toexperience a steady population expansion, some societies such asItaly do not have a natural growth. Despite this, there are somenoticeable global trends. For instance, the decline in the rates ofgrowth and the underlying factors since the 1960s has been observedworldwide. The majority of the nations have policies or programsthat have implication on birth rates. They include “one ortwo-child policies” introduced by some governments as well asfamily planning programs. Additionally, in the globalized world,immigration has a huge contribution to the number of people living ina region or country. The majority of people move from poor or lessdeveloped countries to the industrialized world in search for betterlife. Also, increased incidences of civil wars and politicalinstability, as well as natural disasters, have resulted in increasednumber of refugees (Rowntree & Price, 2015).
There are several features of a population that have globalsignificance. The most important are the rates of population growth.The statistics vary from one country or region to another.Additionally, it is influenced by a wide range of factors, whichinclude the availability of food and health care services, the levelof education, government policies, and poverty levels, among others.The increase in population is closely associated with fertility ratesand the ratio of the old and the young. For example, a youthfulsociety will have a steady growth in the future when compared to anaging population. Life expectancy has enormous significance ondemographics. It is an indicator of the wellbeing and health of thepeople in a given country. It is affected by factors suchaccessibility of quality health services, availability of food, andsanitation (Rowntree & Price, 2015).
Life expectancy and population growth are likely to be affected byseveral factors in the near future. They include improvement inmedical technology and personal hygiene, adoption of healthylifestyles, economic development or decline, as well as foodsecurity. For example, in less developed countries, economicchallenges and food insecurity may cause a decrease in birth rates,while improved access to modern medicine will result in people livinglonger (Oyevaar et al., 2016).
The significance of demographic transitions and immigration, and thesocioeconomic models associated with them, cannot be ignored. Studiessuggest that similar factors influence the rates of population growthin different countries, which have resulted in demographictransitions. For example, historical data indicates that urbanizationand industrialization of the western economies resulted in changes inpopulation characteristics, mainly birth and death rates. However,these features affect the natural population growth, while it has noeffects on mobility. Immigration has evolved into one of the mostimportant phenomena in the globalized world. It is estimated thatover 190 million people live outside their nation of birth (Rowntree& Price, 2015). The integration of societies and cultures throughcommunication and trade are the main reasons for the increased humanmobility. However, the majority of migrants live in the developedworld. Economic factors, where people move from their countries insearch for better jobs and economic opportunities, are the maincontributors to migration. Others include social and politicalinstability, natural factors such as famine and calamities, andsearch for quality education (Sundaram, 2011).
In the next few years, globalization will have more direct impacts onall aspects of the population, and vice versa. This is because theworld is becoming borderless as people can easily move from onegeographical area to another. Additionally, social and economicinfluences are not limited to national or regional boundaries.Therefore, the global populations will continue to be morehomogenous, where no societies are isolated from the factorsaffecting other regions of the world. For example, due to ease ofpeople movement, disease outbreaks that have an impact on apopulation in South Africa can spread to Europe, Americans, and Asiawithin days. Additionally, people in developing countries areincreasingly accessing advanced medical technologies and services,due to globalization (Oyevaar et al., 2016).
Oyevaar, M. et al. (2016). and SustainableDevelopment: A Business Perspective. Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN113744536X.
Sundaram, J. (2011). and development in sub-SaharanAfrica. DESA Working Paper No. 102, ST/ESA/2011/DWP/102. UnitedNations.
Rowntree, L. & Price, W. (2015). Diversity Amid, ed. James Dalton. Boston, MA: Pearson LearningSolutions.