How Have We Evolved in the Management Field?

HowHave We Evolved in the Management Field?


Ideally,management theory principles refer to a collection of ideas whichprovide a guideline on how a business entity or organization is runand governed (Hill, Jones &amp Schilling, 2014).These theories arenecessary prerequisites for managers and supervisors to lead thecompany towards achieving its set goals and objectives. Equallyimportant, it is an essential aspect in motivating employees so thatthey can bring out the best in them when executing their day to dayactivities(Ahmad, 2012).Notably, management theory or principles have all over the years gonethrough substantial changes. The evolution has significantly reformedthe way organizations are managed (Hill et al., 2014).Therefore, theresearch paper seeks to discuss the five key management theories,their significance at the time they were created and the varioustheorists who introduced them. Lastly, the essay will focus onhighlighting the limitations of these theories/principles.

2.0Scientific management theory

Firstly,scientific management theory is one of the key milestones which havepositively contributed to the transformation currently witnessed inthe management field.

2.0.1Significance of scientific management theory

Theevolution of present management began towards the end of the 19thcentury. The management concept was developed after the industrialrevolution had swept through various countries such as Canada, UnitedStates, and Europe (Joneset al, 2016). Factories and industries replaced small workshops previously operatedby skilled workers. Frederick W. Taylor made the theory, and it wasintended to establish the relationship between people and theirassigned obligations so that the work processes can be designed toincrease efficiency and general output (Ahmad,2012).Hebelieved that production would significantly increase if the amountof time spent by an employee to produce a unit of production isreduced. For that reason, scientific management theory wassignificant because it resulted in specialization and division oflabor. Additionally, Taylor advocated for the use of scientificmanagement techniques so that competence can be achieved.

2.0.2Limitations of scientific management theory

Theprinciple brought more hardships to the employees compared to itsbenefits. In this case, the management of various organizations tookadvantage of the concept to increase performance by making theirstaff members work for long hours with the same amount ofremuneration (Joneet al., 2016).Thisled to widespread dissatisfaction amongst employees. Also, increasedspecialization prompted massive layoffs since fewer human resourcecapital was needed. Apart from that, workers became disgruntled withthe jobs due to job monotony.

3.0Administrative management theory

3.0.1Significance of the theory

Thetheory seeks to identify the principles which will create anorganizational structure that will ensure that the most efficient andeffective system is in place. It is crucial because it facilitatesthe development of authority relationships which control the way inwhich employees use the available resources to steer the organizationtowards achieving its set goals. Two philosophers developed theprinciple. On one hand, the theory of bureaucracy was introduced MaxWeber whereas Henri Fayol spearheaded principles of management(Jone et al., 2016).Theideologies developed by the theorists were aimed at achieving aformal system of organization administration. The management conceptswere developed at a time when various enterprises across the globewere growing due to the industrial revolution(Szarucki, 2015).

3.0.2Limitations of administrative management theory

Ifbureaucracies are not managed well, it might result in problems. Thetheory led to complex standard operating procedures subsequentlyaffecting the process of decision making. Equally, too much relianceon rules by managers to solve problems lessens their flexibilityhence straining the general growth of companies (Ahmad,2012).

4.0Behavioral management theory

4.0.1Significance of the theory

Theprinciple was written before and after the Second World War by MaryParker (Joneet al., 2016).It is one of the crucial management concepts since it to provide aguideline to managers so that they can behave and carry themselvesappropriately to motivate employees as they work towards achievingthe objectives set by the organization. It also gives the topexecutive team various techniques which they can use to improve theperformance of their workforce (Ahmad,2012).

4.0.2Limitations of the theory

Thetheory did not provide ways of enacting the practices and behaviorlearned. Ordinarily, people can acquaint themselves with the requiredcode of conduct as well as the acceptable practices as outlined bythe rules and regulations of the company. Nonetheless, implementationis another challenging task an issue which was not adequatelyaddressed by the theory.

5.0Management science theory

5.0.1Significance of management science theory.

Themanagement concept was introduced during the World War II (Ahmad,2012).It is an up-to-date extension of scientific management theory whichwas founded by Frederick W. Taylor. The theory advocates for adifferent approach to management which applies quantitativetechniques so that company managers can make good use of theavailable resources. The various subfields of the theory, forinstance, total quality management, management information system andquantitative management provide useful techniques and tools formanagers so that they can improve the quality of decisions made.

5.0.2Limitations of management science theory

Managementscience theory focuses more on division of labor and specializationwhich results to job monotony. It also inhibits creativity. Also, itemphasizes on improving individual performance rather than that ofthe entire group. This negatively affects general growth of thecompany.

6.0Organizational environmental theory

6.0.1Significance of the theory

Itis also another crucial milestone in the history and evolution ofcompany administration. It was introduced to determine the variousexternal forces or conditions which in one way or the other affectthe ability of managers to acquire and utilize resources. To fullyunderstand those factors, James Thompson, Robert Kahn and Daniel Katzcame up with the open systems view in the 1960s (Szarucki,2015).In this case, the theorists perceived the organization to be an opensystem which uses external resources and converts them into finishedgoods and services. It then returns them for sale. On the same note,contingency theory developed by Paul and Jay in the United States aswell as Tom and G.M. Stalker in the United Kingdom claims that theideas and decisions made by managers on organizational structures arecontingent to the external environment in which it operates (Hill etal., 2014).

6.0.2Limitations of organizational environmental theory

Theassumption that all organizations are similar and exposed to a moreparallel external environment is one of the weaknesses organizationalenvironmental theory. Each and every company encounters variouschallenges depending on the industry in which it operates in.


Asit has been noted, management is a process which has all over theyears evolved in an effort of trying to ensure efficiency andeffectiveness are achieved in a company’s operations. Varioustheories have been developed to substantiate the assumption. Toillustrate, there is scientific management theory, administrativemanagement theory and behavioral management theory. Also, othermanagement concept theories include management science theory andorganizational environmental theory. Despite the various limitationsportrayed by theories, they have brought significant reforms to themanagement and improved decision making within companies.


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