Thepolice service has been subjected to a series of continual changeover the last few decades. These changes have been stimulated by theintroduction of new policies such as new public management initiative(NPM). The main tenet of the NPM is the promotion of new managerialand professional subjectivities while utilizing a wide range ofmanagerial tools and techniques that are aimed at reconfiguring theprofessional attitude, priorities, values, and self-understanding.The central elements in the police service have been the re-brandingfrom ‘force’ to ‘service’ and the promotion of feminizedprofessional norm, increased tolerance and creation of equal andunbiased opportunity for all (Deljkić, Lučić-ČatiĆ, 2011). Thesuccess of such models requires a reorientation of the policingperformance from a system that legitimizes a competitive masculinesubjectivity while emphasizing crime fighting and reduction to a moreethical and professional model that is based on the community and itsoccupants while adopting a problem-solving orientation and equalityprinciples. In the light of poor public image and discrimination,the police service has been compelled to abandon the traditionalculture where harassment and macho masculinity are prominent. At thestart of the new millennium, police officers around the world arewitnessing a gradual change in the ways their leadership isstructured and in their professional roles and identities.
Implementationof Community Policing
Toensure that community policing is successful, there should exist apermanent change in the organizational culture and the orientation ofthe individual police officers and their senior leadership. However,many scholars have highlighted policing culture as the main hindranceto this new philosophy. The traditional policing is comprised of aformalized bureaucratic and standardized set of working conditionsand systems with a profoundly entrenched and pervasive professionalculture. The identity of the traditional policing is constructed asa mechanism of fighting crime. The traditional policing emphasize onreactive and incident driven policing which squarely fits into themasculine domain with the societal stereotypes of manliness mappingon the requirements to be a good cop. The cop culture that has mainlydeveloped due to traditional policing has three main qualitiesinformality, solidarity, and masculinity (Bain, Robinson, Conser,2014). This form of policing is endemic and enduring in the policeservices and towards the values of machismo, action, sexism,political and social conservatism and in extreme cases racism.Research has revealed a substantial amount of evidence that shows thecontinuing problems of sexual discrimination, sexual banter, andsexual harassment within the police culture and theunderrepresentation of women in the senior managerial positions.Female officer’s differential deployment corresponds with thequasi-familial roles and the assumptions about the women’s naturalskills, and the attitude posed by their male counterparts being acombination of protectionism and paternalism.
Thereare scant empirical works that explore the enactment of the NPM andthe individual level. The research conducted took the perspectivethat organizations are avenues of gender construction andcontestation. The gender identity of being either a male or a femaleis a daily achievement, and its robust is not immutable. Identitiesin the police service are made through continual processes ofself-reflection and as various discourses vie with each other fordominance. This, therefore, means a shift from presenting women andmen’s homogeneous and univocal groups and the reduction of feministor masculinity to a simple dualism which is biological determined(Bain, Robinson, Conser, 2014). The professional identities cannot,therefore, be read off from a biological sex, and the professionalcorrespondences cannot be utterly read off from a given context ofchange. This paper will to some extent, therefore, explore the waysNPM has received and responded, supported and subverted by a person’sprofessionalism in the police service. The paper will also tend toexplore and examine the multiple complex patterns of the changinggender relations within the service and the prospects for a morecommunity-oriented and participative policing method.
Communitypolicing is being embraced by many of police departments globally,and this change has significant implications for the planners and theresidents. It is accepted as a solution to most of the challenges inthe community today. Community police officers are should involvethemselves in development of solutions to community problems and are,therefore, supposed to adopt goals and methods that enhance communitydevelopment. The goals and community policing strategies resemblethose of community development and planning. They are formulated toensure stable and secure neighborhoods and promote the involvement ofcommunity residents in the collective improvement project. Thisaspect calls for the planners and community police to work hand inhand increase their role in the society. Planners and communitypolicy should utilize the perspectives and skills that eachprofession has to the task of improving the security and generalconditions of the neighborhood. To ensure the success of thecommunity policing, the following strategies can be adopted,
Storesthat sell beers and wines are a major source of crime and disorder inthe community in Clermont. There is a large crowd of people wholoiter around such premises providing an effective cover for theselling of drugs and other felonies. This establishment hassignificant effects on people’s quality of life and therefore thereis need to close the premises that do not adhere to the law.Particularly, there should be no bars near schools or hospitals andsuch businesses located near this social institutions should beclosed immediately. The number of licenses that should be offered tobusinesses selling alcohol near each other should be controlled.
Crosstraining in community problem solving
Asmentioned earlier, community policing is no effectively implementedby most security departments, and therefore majority of the officersare inexperienced in the same. On the contrary, planners haveextensive experience in the many activities that occur in thecommunity such as problem detection, data collection, analysis anddevelopment of solution, and evaluating the impact of the implementedstrategies. The community planners can, therefore, play an importantrole in educating the police officers on community-based policing byshowing them long range perspective on problem solving. Thecommunity planners can help the law enforcement officers indeveloping strategies in both the formal and informal setting. Thesecan help the community in adopting long-term solutions to crimeprevention.
Totalquality management as a basis for cooperation
Philosophyand total quality management training is effective in enhancing thecooperation between the planners and police in Clermont. Thesetraining aims at adopting an interdependent problem-solving and issupported by four pillars customer satisfaction, evidence-basedmanagement, respect for people and problem solving using a systematicaction planning. This cooperation will enable the police officers andthe residents to know each other on the first-hand basis. Therefore,the implementation of neighborhood improvement projects is enhanced.
Fromthe philosophical approach, community policing is different from thetraditional policing by three main principles shares responsibilityto enhance community safety, crime prevention and the discretion ofthe officer in the performance of police duties. The approachemphasizes that the responsibility for maintaining order in a societyshould be shared by the police and the community. The sharedresponsibility should entail regular and long-term communicationwhich plays a vital role in ensuring trust and cooperation betweenthe community residents and the police. The community policingrequires the citizens to be actively involved in crime preventionthrough vigilance and reporting of crimes (Ikuteyijo, 2011). Wherethere is shared responsibility, the police will respond to andprevent crime-related problems efficiently. Community policingenhances crime prevention. While traditional policing mainly focuseson the crimes that have been committed, community policing aims atidentifying and analyzing the underlying conditions and thereforestrive to prevent the crime from happening. Community policing isprevention-oriented. It is facilitated collaboration of the police,residents and other organizations in the community. It alsoemphasizes on how to perform duties so as to be responsive to thecommunity demands and build community trust (Riccio et al. 2013). Thephilosophy allows the police officers to have flexibility withinreasonable limits which helps them to handle problems based on whatis most effective instead of operating by rigid rules and procedures. The officers are encouraged to develop skills and techniques to curbcrime without necessarily having to arrest the wrongdoers. However,this requires a decentralization and flattening of the commandstructure.
Importanceof community policing
Thechangeover from traditional to community policing face majorvicissitudes in policies, missions and practices of the policedepartment and also in police behavior. This transition mayexperience internal resistance. The resistance can be posed by boththe middle managers and or the line officers. The middle managermostly opposes the community policing due to their fear for loss oftheir power over the line officers which mainly accompanies the shiftto community policing (Wareham, Smith, Lambert, 2015). The lineofficers have a challenge in accepting the shift of roles fromenforcing the laws as in the traditional setup to solving thecommunity problems. There are many benefits that are associated withcommunity policing and the cooperation between the officers andcommunity
Reducedcrime and increase fear for committing crime
Crimeand fear of crime poses a significant impediment to therevitalization of the community. Community planners are more likelyto concentrate on maintaining or enhancing the physicalinfrastructure of the community, but their strategies are easilyundermined by lawlessness and increased crime activities. Despite theresources and the physical appearance of a location, some people willnot stay in areas characterized by fear of crime. To ensure success,community revitalization projects must also address safety issues inaddition to social and economic conditions that play a role indeclining the community. Involvement in crime prevention activitiesheightens citizen’s awareness and attention to crimes and societalproblems which increase fear levels for committing crimes. Increasedmedia coverage of the crime has also played a vital role inincreasing the fear levels.
Residentsin revitalization efforts
Communitypolicing can result in the extensive revitalization of theneighborhoods by emphasizing on organizing the citizen groups inareas where they do not exist or supporting the already existinggroups. The police officers help in organizing the community watchgroups some of which evolve to local multipurpose firms (Miller L.S., Hess M. & Orthmann C. 2013). They achieve this by adoptingpolicies that are opportunity oriented and emphasizes collaborationand cooperation between the community and the government agencies.They identify the most pressing challenges in the community fromwhich they design intervention plan that is suitable both for theresidents and the public agencies.
Policeofficers in neighborhood advancement planning
Communitypolicing is involved with cataloging the full spectrum of theproblems which are experienced by community residents. One of thedistinct aspects of the community policing is that the officers areout in the field and the surrounding neighborhood on a daily basis.Through their local patrols, they can have contact with variousresidents (Espejo, 2014). These enable them to assess the conditionsof the neighborhood and realize how those conditions influence thelives of the residents. The police officers, therefore, becomes anexcellent source of firsthand information on the area, its residentsand the problems in the area. Considering their close contact theycan also help in disseminating information on improvement of thearea. Despite this advantages, there are also cons associated withcommunity policing, this includes
Someindividuals who join the police force of the community watch groupsare not civic minded and therefore may engage in breaching the law.Such acts can cause the residents to lose trust in community policing
Tojustify the establishment of community policing in an area, theremust be a certain level of criminal activities that has beenreported. Without the crimes, there would be no need to establishcommunity policing.
Aperson need not be a criminal to not want a police officer around hisor her house or business premises. Some people are of the idea thatpolice presence is not only unneeded but is unwanted. Implementationof the community policing changes the structure of the policing andits management.
Burglariesare presented as one of the most difficult crime to plan for withstatistics showing that the crime levels have increased byapproximately 50%. It is difficult to estimate when the crimes willoccur and the persons involved. There are various strategies thathave failed to prevent crimes or reduce the risk factors for crimesoccurring. This was deduced using the identical scientific criteriathat are used to decide what works.
Personnelmanagement is important for various reasons the departmentspecifically deals with procuring, training and hiring an effectiveworkforce. It ensures that the hired individuals are equipped withthe required resources and are up to date on their jobs (Ramshaw,2013). An effective personnel management also creates a strong bondbetween the employees and the people they interact with thereforecreating a sense of teamwork.
Clementscase study shows that there is much to be gained if the planners,police officers and the residents work together in cooperation.However, there are many barriers that also need to be overcome so asto forge an effective working relationship between the three groups.We can deduce that most of the municipal and police departmentssuffer from insularity, and planning challenges. The departments arenarrowly focused on the daily activities and therefore fails toliaise with other departments on how they can coordinate theirefforts to address the challenges in the community effectively. Inmany occasions, insularity is reinforced by the physical separationbetween the planners and the police departments.
Culturaldisparities may also simulate a challenge to cooperation. The policeofficers will help by immediately responding to solve problems whilethe planners will play role in adopting long-term strategies. In mostcases, planners are more educated, have good socioeconomicbackgrounds and are more politically liberal than the policeofficers. It is also important to bring to light that each field hasits jargons that make effective communication difficult.
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