Thenature versus nature issue was initially debated by the philosophers.The psychological debate indicates the level at which the certainaspects of human behavior are inherited or acquired. The inheritedcharacteristics are determined by genetic factors. The acquiredbehavior is got through learning and the environment. Nature isreferred to as biological pre-wiring, and it is realized through theinheritance of genetic and related biological factors. Nature appliesto the influence that the external environment has on a person afterconception for example, learning and experience (Plomin et al.,2014).
Natureversus nature theory recognizes that both issues, genetics andenvironment, affect the behavior of individuals. Francis Galton isthe person who started the debate during the 19th century. He is ahalf-cousin to Charles Darwin who authored Onthe Origin of Species.Galton understood that intellectual ability is greatly inherited. Heillustrated that high intelligence quotient is a result of naturalsuperiority (Rutter, 2015). In 1690, John Locke supported the conceptof nature. He explained that people get most of their behavioralcharacteristics from the environment. This concept is known as atabularasain psychology, meaning a “blank slate.” The two perspectives ofhuman behavior developed a dispute on ideology during the 20thcentury (Plomin et al., 2014). The current scholars and scientistsindicate that the debate is outdated. This is because modern researchindicates self-domestication where “nature” and “nurture”characteristics influence each other.
Somephysical features are influenced by genetic factors. Examples ofthese features are skin pigmentation, eye color, and hair type (curlyor straight). Physical characteristics is determined by the geneticcomposition of the biological parents. There is a positivecorrelation in the height, life expectancy, and weight of relatedpeople (Rutter, 2015). These observations have made other peoplethink that behavior and mental characteristics are genetic. Anotherperspective is that human characteristics develop from evolution.Differences in individuals are because of the unique genetic code ofeach person. The environmentalists assume that the human mind is inblank slate at birth. The mind is regularly filled using experienceinformation (Plomin et al., 2014). Psychological and behaviordifferences that are experienced in infancy are because of learning.Language abilities of infants for example, is got by imitating thespeech pattern of other people.
Biologicalsiblings, identical twins, and fraternal twins can have similargenetic and physical characteristics. These include blood type andeye color. However, the environment that they grow up in dictatestheir behavior patterns. Identical twins who grow in differentenvironments have different behavior characteristics for example,different weight, language, and religiosity. Biological siblings whogrow up in the same environment will develop the same language andreligion (Saul, 2007).
Thebiopsychosocial model indicates that human behavior and intelligenceis acquired based on the interaction of the biological,psychological, and social factors. The model tries to provide asolution to the nature versus nature debate. The biological factorsinclude genes and physical appearances like eye color and bloodgroup. The psychological factors include the intelligence level ofparents. The social factors indicate how behavior is acquired byrelating with other members of the society culturally or religiously.The biopsychological model, therefore, supports the notion that humanbehavior is acquired through the interaction of genetic andenvironmental factors (Saul, 2007). My opinion is that the natureversus nature argument should end. This is because scientificresearch shows that human behavior is influenced by both hereditaryfactors and environmental characteristics.
Saul,M. (2007). Nature vs. Nurture in Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/naturevsnurture.html
Rutter,M. (2015). Genesand Behavior: Nature-Nurture Interplay Explained.Malden (MA): Wiley-Blackwell.
Plomin,R.et al. (2014). "Nature, Nurture and Cognitive Development from1 to 16 years: A Parent-Offspring Adoption Study."PsychologicalScience,8(6), 442–447.