Psychoanalytic Therapy

Psychoanalytic Therapy 4



PsychoanalyticTherapy concentrates on the unsound behavior portrayed by a person.The aim of is to make the addicted aware ofhow the past influences his present. Chapter four focuses on theCognitive- Behavioral Therapy, an approach that is widely used in thetreatment of substance abuse (McWilliams, 2003).The substance abusetreatment using behavioral abuse has been effective and widelyaccepted by the researchers. Some critics, however, debate that theapproach has been developed under controlled condition whereas, inactual Therapy, many variables at work are measured at controlledconditions. The technique of Behavioral Therapy can be conducted atindividual capacity, in family settings or as a group. The BehavioralTherapy takes into an assumption that abuse malfunction is as aresult of learning from others and reinforcement. The models ofsubstance abuse disorder are explained in the principles ofSkinnerian operant learning and classical Pavlovian conditioning.

Accordingto the Pavlovian theory of classical conditioning, an originalstimulus evokes a psychological response. Since a Behavioral Therapyis a pattern learned, it is a belief that changing the possibility ofreinforcement would help modify it. Human behavior is to a greaterextent learned rather than genetically defined. The learned factorsthat bring about the problem of abuse can also be used to eradicatethem. The behavior can be changed by educating the addicted morealternative, suitable criteria which can achieve the same outcomes.The aim of behavioral therapy is to make the addicted gain insightsby addressing the problem that is affecting him. Behavioral Therapywork is concise since it focuses on changing the observed measurablebehaviors (McWilliams, 2003). Regular measurement and checkup is acore thing in ensuring efficient behavioral therapy. The durations ofthe treatment is based upon the assessment rather than the length ofthe Therapy.

Techniquesof Behavioral Therapy that are based on models of classicalconditioning include cue and extinction exposure procedures whichapply the principle of classical conditioning. The urge of thebehavior will reduce with time if it is not reinforced in occurrence.It leads to the invention of behavioral treatment referred as the cueexposure. The other model is counter conditioning and aversionprocedures which make the behavior bringing positive result lessattractive by connecting them with negative results (McWilliams,2003). The operant model`s techniques are behavioral contracting andcontingency management where the environment necessities that causesubstance abuse are changed. The aim is to raise behaviors that areincongruent with the abuse and to a greater extent reduce theirconsumption.

Theother model is community reinforcement approach (CRA) which aims toweaken the manipulations of the substance abuse by offeringalternative activities such as vocational, family, social andrecreational. The other model is behavioral self-control training,which, unlike CRA aims to make the substance abuser stop either onhis own or with the assistance of a therapist. This model aims ateither abstinence or moderation. In my reasoning, I find it necessaryto recommend the addict to self-help groups. These groups arepreferable since they offer support and hope. It is a significantstep since the loneliness and isolation they lived in would bechanged to sober fellowship, realization, and mutual support. Inconclusion, the treatment of behavioral therapy now days are based onoperant and classical theories methods, though not exclusively. It isimportant to treat addiction in earlier stages because the longer theproblem is ignored, the higher the risks: brain damage and liverdamage.


McWilliams,N. (2003). Psychoanalyticcase formulation.New York: Guilford Press.