Thispaper is a review of four different psychotherapeutic perspectives.It reveals the basic foundation on which a particular therapy wasdeveloped. The objective of this paper is to provide an insight andan understanding of the developmental struggles and issuesexperienced by the individual discussed in the vignette. Moreover,the goal of this paper is to evaluate the basic tenets of theories,which will be accomplished by reviewing the similarities anddifferences regarding the development of personality.


Joe,who is the main character in the vignette 1, is a 19-year old man.Joes suffers from occasional anxiety and of depression. Joe statesthat he has never seemed to feel good enough. Joe has been takingcare of his mother who is an invalid woman and his two youngersiblings. Joe’s father left when he was at the age of five years.However, his father returned when he was at the age of 12 years. Hisbrother and sister were born two years later. His mother was involvedin a car accident when he was 16 years old. The accident left himparalyzed. Joe’s father left the family again and he wishes himdead.


Freud(1856-1939) is the father of the psychoanalytic theory. He was bornin Moravia, and began his medical studies at the University ofVienna. Freud’s studies began with an interest in neurology, wherehe compared the growth of fetal brains to the development of thoseconsidered as adults. Freud presented with symptoms of depression andanxiety. He was extremely depressed and experienced a great deal ofdepression after the death of his father. He focused on his personalissues with anxiety and depression, which prompted a self-analysis.This process of self-analysis resulted in the development of thepsychoanalytic approach. Freud’s work on self-analysis helped himanalyze his personal dreams, which he believed were comprised of theunconscious thoughts. Freud’s motivation to uncover unconsciousthoughts and dreams led to the discovery of the concept of hypnosis. Freud focused on investigation as well as the determination of thepsychological factors that are related to an individual’schallenges. These psychological factors were suspected to be the keycauses of psychosomatic problems that led to the emergence ofunwanted defects in one’s personality.

Severaltenets of the psychoanalytic theory are presented as importantfactors that help people identify the roots of the problems in life.Freud presented the psychoanalytic theory using several differentstrategies. The application of different strategies increased thepossibility of using the theory to discover the underlying problemsof an individual. Freud used dreams, among other techniques, todetect the problems in an individual’s life. He focused on anindividual’s dream and considered them as the path to theunconscious (Vandebos, Meidenbauer, &amp Frank-McNeil, 2013). Freudfocused on the interpretation of dreams and utilized them to uncoverthe imperceptible struggles of people with psychological problems.

Oneof the most significant techniques used in the psychoanalytic theoryto unveil an individual’s difficulties was the concept of freeassociation. The term free association presented individuals underanalysis with the opportunity to assess the etiology of theirproblem, which allowed their thoughts to be released withoutreservation or alteration (Cervone &amp Pervin, 2014). Freeassociation was used as an alternative when the application ofhypnosis was unsuccessful (Cervone &amp Pervin, et al., 2014).Hypnosis was used to help people understand the unconscious motivesand how they act as the root causes of an individual’s problems.

Otherimportant tenets associated with the psychoanalytic theory areattributed to the Oedipus complex. The Oedipus complex is understoodas the fantasy that males experience to kill their fathers anddevelop the desire to marry their mothers (Cervone &amp Pervin etal., 2014). The phenomenon in which the male develop the thought tokill his father as presented in this vignette is presented as anunresolved issue that resulted in the Oedipus complex.

Inthis particular vignette, the Chinese male is portrayed as failing toresolve issues during the Oedipus complex phase of development. TheChinese male wished that his father was deceased. According toFreud’s psychoanalytic theory, males are focused on genitalorganization and tend to identify with their father without rivalryduring the Oedipus complex. They also try hard to get their mothers’attention (Hartke, 2016). The male in this vignette, missed theopportunity to connect and bond with his father. The poorly developedrelationship with the father limited his ability to present himselfwith confidence, which possibly resulting in negatively repressedmemories. Repressed memories, on the other hand, resulted indepression and anxiety.


Erikson(1902-1994) was noted as the founder of the psychosocial stages ofdevelopment. The eight stages of psychosocial development that weredeveloped by Erikson’s serve as the foundation for the growth ofidentity. Erik believed that at each distinctive stage in life, aparticular crisis occurs in the area of development. Erik noted that,failure to resolve specific challenges during specific time frames inlife resulted in unfavorable outcomes. Erik also held that oral stageis important because it facilitates the development of trust. Duringthis phase, an individual must develop trust with parents beforesuccessfully moving on to other stages. Each psychosocial stage ofdevelopment rests on the premise that people must first learn totrust their parents in order to successfully advance to moresophisticated stages.

Inreference to the psychosocial stages of development in this vignette,the Intimacy versus the isolation stage appears to present as utmostimportant. The successful completion of this stage results in thedevelopment of comfortable relationships. These relationships areassociated a sense of commitment. On the other hand, unsuccessfulcompletion of this stage presents with a fear of commitment andintimacy. In addition, unsuccessful development in this phase ischaracterized by isolation, loneliness, and often time depression.The individual, who presents with unresolved issues during theIndustry versus Inferiority stage of development ultimately presentswith superficial relations and depression. The loss of the ego-drivealludes to the lack of parental love, especially during childhood.Proper development is achieved when one receives love, acceptance,and acknowledgement (Ventegodt, 2014). The perception of Erikson’sdevelopment of the psychosocial stages is similar to the premisepresented in Freud’s psychoanalytic theory. The unsuccessfuldevelopment in the present phase increases the risk of acquiringnegative behaviors.

Erikson,similar to Freud, focused on the first relationships that peopledevelop with their parents. The quality of relationships that peoplehave with their parents influences the development of neurosis. Thesuccessful development of the personality in the present stagesfacilitates growth in the subsequent phases. Therefore, thedevelopment achieved at each phase of human growth contributestowards the acquisition of positive or negative personality in thelater stages.


AlfredAdler (1870-1937) is the writer of the Adlerian theory. Adler made asignificant contribution to the school of Individual psychology. Hisinterest and energy was devoted to the determination of how subjectsbegan to experience conscious feelings and how they compensated forthem. Adler had a great interest in the study of mechanisms throughwhich realized that other people are taller, stronger, and lager.This realization mainly occurs during the early stages ofdevelopment. On the other hand, the Adlerian perspective focused onthe personal feelings that one has about self. This feeling helppeople learn how to develop goals at an early stage, which results inthe development of positive behavior, even in later phases of humangrowth.

Adlerhad an interest in the significance of birth order in families. Thetheories advanced by Freud as well as Erikson emphasized on thedynamics of the development of the first relationships experienced inlife. The significance of birth order that was explained in theAdlerian theory focused on people who were born first. Adleriantheory focused on the motivation of the offspring, who exhibitedbehaviors similar to those of their parents. Research has documentedthat a male first born achieve higher levels of development thansiblings who are born later.

Thedetermination of the image that people develop about themselvesprovides the basis on which the Adlerian therapy can be administered.It is documented that what people think about themselves is anextrapolation of the idea that was established during childhood(Ventegodt &amp Merrick, 2014). The main factors that are exhibitedduring childhood, according to the Adlerian therapy, result from theideas that people develop in their mind and image that is reflectiveof their parents. Adler held that power presents as a catalyst thatincreases achievement in all stages of development. From the Adlerianperspective, the individual who successfully develops a positivesense of identity will possibly feel hopeful. Those who fail todevelop a positive sense of identity will experience negativefeelings and a sense of hopelessness.

Inthis vignette, the subject matter is the oldest child and he presentswith a low sense of self-esteem. The Adlerian perspective portrayedhere exposes the subject as one, who failed to develop a confidentidentity of self, which led to depression and anxiety. Recognition asthe first born male should have motivated the subject to excel. Onthe other hand, the negative identity of self exhibits the reverseexperience of what is enjoyed by those who have a positivepersonality.


CarlJung (1875-1961) is the author of the analytical theory. Carl had aninterest in people and practiced as a physician. Jung believed thathuman beings functioned as if they were surviving on the experiencesof the past, including those of their ancestors. The thoughts anddevelopment of the past, according to Jung, existed with a myriad ofrepressed memories from the past. Jung assumed that the memories fromthe past were repressed and kept in the unconscious mind. He believedthat the first memories were important, but they were based on theirrecollections from predecessors.

Jungalso recognized the significance of dreams. However, he had aslightly different perspective regarding the significance of dreamscompared to Freud. Jung, similar to Freud, recognized the dreams, butassessed them as elevated mental processes that occurred as anindividual attempted to develop the sense of homeostasis (Corliss,2014). Jung, like Freud, referenced the libido as a form of energy.Jung advanced an idea that people had the opportunity to develop totheir desired levels, irrespective of the interpersonal limitationsthat they experience in life. However, the removal of barriersfosters the innate desire to flourish in life.

Jungalso believed in reviewing how others became frustrated by theirinner struggles. These frustrations limit people’s ability toexpress what they experience or feel. The inner frustrations aresimilar to masks that people use to avoid presenting their realpersona. Jung appeared to believe that people could group theirparticular behaviors into specialized categories, anticipate, anddetermine their specific conducts. Therefore, internal frustrationsdetermine ones personality development more than interpersonalbarriers.

Jungalso believed in categorization of different types of behavior, whichhelped him to predict behaviors that are expect to occur. Thepossibility of predicting behaviors that might occur empowertherapists to help those in various situations. The therapeutic valueof the theory is based on the possibility of determining behaviorsthat one likely to develop in the future. Characteristics of certainpeople could be predicted to help those in need of help. Jungbelieved that the behaviors that were considered as questionable wereallowed to disrupt or destroy an assumed idea of what conducts shouldbe expected or presented for a variety of different things.

Inthis vignette, the character is presented as an introvert. Thecharacter had a low level of enthusiasm to make the necessary changesin life, improve his motivation, and enhance his life. Theindividual presents with the personality and characteristics of aperson who is feeling sad and depressed.


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