1. After water istaken up by plants it utilizes the water in the following ways: apercentage of not less than ninety is lost to the atmosphere throughtranspiration. Some water of about 1.5 percent is used by the plantto manufacture food, and the rest of about 7-8 percent ensures thatthe cells of plants do not die

2. The amount ofwater required to produce 1g of dry weight material is a third of themoist sample. The amount of water lost during CO2 uptake is around 1percent.

3. The amount ofwater required is directly proportional to plant productivity be itin natural or agricultural settings

4. They include theability to adhese and cohese with walls of capillaries of plantshence ensure its absorption from the soil. Water can dissolve almosteverything. This aids the plant in the transportation of itsproducts.

5. Capillarity isthe ability of the plant to absorb and transport water from the soilup through the plant capillaries. Cohesive and adhesive forces arebalanced when the water column is high. Water raises high in a thintube than thick tube because adhesive forces are high than adhesiveforces in the thin tube, unlike the thick tube.

6. The stem is themajor store of food hence plants don’t allow the nutrients diffusefrom their store. Nutrients are highly concentrated at the bottomhence their diffusion will not occur because diffusion is themovement of nutrients from a region of high concentration to a regionof low concentration.

7. Components ofwater potential are turgor potential, the osmotic potential and forsmall instances gravitational potential for the taller plants

8. Water potentialof salt water is lower than that of pure water. The water potentialdecreases on doubling the concentration of solutes.

9. The water flowsinto the plasma membrane since the concentration of water outside themembrane is higher than that inside hence moving from a region ofhigh water concentration to a region of low water concentration.

10.plants canmaintain concentration inside their cells than outside because theyhave a cell wall which does not burst. The features which allow thisinclude turgor pressure

11.plasmolysis isthe process in which plant cells loose water to the highlyconcentrated solution.this tells that the water potential of a plantcell is high than the solute of the animal cell

12. Water potentialis a negative pressure mostly in plant cells.

13. Throughdiffusion water from far, places reach the roots. Surface tension ofwater near the roots at the boundary of air and water reduces theabsorption of water by root hairs

14. The two pathwaysthat water moves through the root epidermis include cellular pathwayand a plastic path. For the water to move to the endodermis cells,there must be concentration difference. The concentration differenceis meant to enable water to move from a region of high concentrationto a region of low concentration through osmosis

15. Root pressurecan be defined as the force that pushes water and nutrients from theroots throughout other parts of the plant. It is essential in a plantbecause it resists the force of gravity.

16. Aquaporins areprotein membranes that usually serve as water channels. When thenumber of aquaporins is reduced, the rate of water flow decreases.

17. Water transportis more efficient in xylem vessels and not in living cells. Almost 99percent of water is transported by the xylem vessels.

18. The major twocell types of the xylem are the xylem vessels and the tracheids.Thexylem vessels are found in almost all plants. The tracheids transportwater laterally while the vessels transport water vertically

19. Water transportis as a result of negative pressure at the top. Transpiration poolallows the uptake of water up the plant

20. Cohesive andadhesive forces and transpiration combine to force water out of thexylem vessels

21. Stomata allowsevaporation and allows in CO2.tanspiration is the ratio of water lostthrough evaporation from the water absorbed from the soil

22 this refers to astate where water molecules are strongly held together aiding uptakeof water by capillarity force.

23. Cavitationrefers to the process of making and breaking reserves of vapor


1. Essentialnutrients are most necessary nutrients that are required in largesupply of which others must be acquired from the body due to thebody`s inability to produce them.

2. The nutrients areclassified according to the body requirements. Macronutrients arerequired in large quantities while the micro and the C H O nutrientsare required in small quantities. Macronutrients are obtained fromcarbohydrates proteins and fats while micro nutrients` sources arevitamins and minerals, and C H O are obtained from carbohydrates

3. Mobile nutrientsand immobile nutrients.

4. Immobilenutrients are nutrients which include copper, iron calcium andsulfur. Plants failed to transport them to the shoot

5. It is an act ofplants turning yellow when they lack iron nutrient

7. The seminalroots, the nodal roots, the corn roots, and the brace roots. This isbecause they are the genesis of growth.To reach more water, plantnutrients and mineral salts.

8. Refers to acombination of fungi. They have a relationship with plants. Theyinclude Ectomycorrhizae and Endomycorrhizae.Have a symbioticrelationship with plants

9the cell membranealienates the inside and outside environment of the cell. They aremoved through passive process

10. Passivetransport does not require energy. The nutrients are transportedthrough diffusion.

13. Membranepotential can be determined by looking at the concentration of ioninside and outside the cell membrane. As the ions move across thechannel, the magnitude increases. However, the ions start repulsingas the process goes on. When the ionic concentration and potentialelectric balances the system becomes equilibrium.

14. When the ion ormolecule is not at equilibrium, it moves from one point of the cellmembrane to the other depending on the potential difference.

15. Plant cellmembrane are more negative inside than inside. This is caused by themovement of potassium and sodium ions. More potassium ions move incompared to the number of sodium ions moving out. This makes theoutside face to be positive.

16. Peripheralproteins and integral proteins are the two major membrane proteinsinvolved in passive transport. Peripheral proteins are more specificto its substrate. Integral proteins allow faster diffusion of itssubstrate.

17. This includesthe movement of molecules from one region to the other across amembrane by use of energy. In primary active transport, the source ofenergy is ATP while in the secondary active transport the source ofenergy is the electrochemical gradient. Two examples of secondarytransporters are symport and antiport.