Bias refers to being inclined to have a particular perspective on anindividual or something. It is caused by a refusal to consideralternative views or possible merits that have significance (Law,2013). For example, an individual may develop a bias against aspecific religion resulting in skewed viewpoint.
Institutional discrimination is a distinctive treatment of peoplewith certain characteristics, which is incorporated in social orinstitutional structures and activities. It can stem from socialidentities, laws, or institutional patterns that developprogressively. In the long run, the unequal treatment becomes anacceptable norm. For instance, segregation and other disadvantagesamong African Americans were tolerated in the society before thecivil rights era resulting in institutional discrimination (Law,2013).
Personal prejudice describes judging someone or a group of peoplebased on perceived membership in a community. It influences howpeople interact with others. A typical illustration is a femaleemployee being seen as weak based on perceived characteristics of hergender. Additionally, a Latino American can be presumed to be a gangmember because drug syndicates are more common in their homecountries (Law, 2013).
Although racism has a negative connotation in the modern society,judgments can be based on the skin color but be assertive. Therefore,decisions can be based on race but are not racist. This is when thedecision is aimed at acknowledging diversity or reinforcing goodattributes (Law, 2013). For example, when an individual is involvedin an international panel or business trip to represent a minoritygroup, the choice is based on race but is not racist. However, thereis a thin line between positive and negative racism. Thus, if itgives a group undue advantage, due to their skin color, it will havea negative undertone, resulting in institutional racism.
Law, I. (2013). Racism and Ethnicity: Global Debates, Dilemmas,Directions. New York, NY: Routledge.