Aberle,S. J., Lohse, C. M., & Sztajnkrycer, M. D. (2015). A descriptiveanalysis of US prehospital care response to law enforcement tacticalincidents. Journalof Special Operations Medicine,15(2),117-122. Retrieved fromhttp://www.safetylit.org/citations/index.php?fuseaction=citations.viewdetails&citationIds=citjournalarticle_488677_20
Thearticle investigates the effectiveness of emergency medical service(EMS) in high risk operations by examining national EMS database. By2012 a total of 17,479,328 EMS had been reported with 3953 eventsbeen “Activation-Tacticalor SWAT Specialty Service/Response Team.” The article show howimportant EMS is in saving lives across all ages and preventingcardiac arrest. This, article supports the importance of tacticalmedics in the law enforcement helping me to stress my argument.
Allen,S. R., Glenn, K., Mulhern, J., & Kaplan, L. J. (2016). Terrorismand urban trauma. In Trauma team dynamics (pp. 227-232).Retrieved fromhttp://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-16586-8_28
Therise in trauma in situations of terror attacks has resulted in theneed to have immediate response team that provides care. It isimportant that the law enforcement and medics work together to curbthe after effects of such scenarios. The article further providesinformation on how the EMS approach has changed in order to be ableto deal with those issues appropriately. The article is useful insupporting the development of TEMS which is important in providingthe background of the study of my research paper.
Andersen,J. P., Papazoglou, K., & Collins, P. M. A. (2016). Reducingrobust health-relevant cardiovascular stress responses amongactive-duty Special Forces police. GenMed (Los Angel),4(225),2.
Thearticle elaborates how policing incidents can be traumatizing withpotential risk factors. The article cites that SWAT are usuallyexposed in situations that are psychologically strenuous, thus theyare susceptible to high heart rates which increase the risk for heartfailure. It is thus important to have emergency medic in thissituation. The article supports the importance of embedded medicalresponse within SWAT.
Blaivas,M., Sargsyan, A. E., & Karakitsos, D. (2016). Tacticalemergency medicine, procedures, and point-of-care evaluation inaustere environments. In trauma team dynamics (pp. 233-236).
Thisarticle elaborates the importance of point of care evaluation andtactical emergency medicine procedure in austere environments. Thereare scenarios where hostage scenario happen far from medicalfacilities. Thus, it become necessary to have stand by medicalresponse team to enhance timely response which is critical to savelives. Thus, the article provides additional support on importance ofhaving a ready response team within law enforcement bodies.
Bozeman,W. P., Morel, B. M., Black, T. D., & Winslow, J. E. (n.d.).Tactical emergency medical support programs: a comprehensivestatewide survey. PrehospitalEmergency Care,16(3),361-365. Retrieved fromhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/10903127.2012.670692
Thearticle provides insightful information on the importance of TEMS onSWAT. It states that TEMS is vital to the citizens, suspects, lawenforcement agencies and officers. The study found out that TEMS wasbeing used by 56 local law enforcement agencies due to itseffectiveness in tense operation especially in South Carolina. Thisarticle provides supporting empirical evidence of importance of TEMS.
Johnson,O. N., Carlson, P., Murphy, B., Flory, D., Lankford, B., &Wyllie, D. (2016). Preparing civilians to survive an active shooterevent. TheJournal of Law Enforcement,,5(2).Retrieved from http://www.jghcs.info/index.php/l/article/view/432
Dueto the increase in active shooter events in U.S, it has becomenecessary that the civilians are trained on how to respond to suchscenarios collaboratively with the TEMS. Mostly in these cases,civilians are injured through stampede calling for immediate medicalresponse. It has become necessary that in such situations SWAT shouldbe accompanied by medic who tend to such victims. Thus, the articlebecome a useful academic material in showing the effects of activeshooter and the response of TEMS in my paper.
Kaplan,L. J., Glenn, K. J., Maung, A., & Jonathan Mulhern, M. B. A.(2014). Embedding a surgeon in a civilian tactical team reducesresource utilization and is cost effective. Americanjournal of disaster medicine,9(2),121-125. Retrieved fromhttp://www.wmpllc.org/ojs-2.4.2/index.php/ajdm/article/view/94
Thejournal article examines if having a surgeon in special weapons andtactics minimizes the cost of resources that will be used when rescueoperation and training. It involved Tactical Police Surgeon (TPS)activities and cost compared with non-SWAT care. It was found outthat having a TPS was cost effective. This article gives insight intothe benefits of having an impeded tactical police surgeon in SWAT.This source cements and gives credit my as it provides empiricalevidence of TEMS effectiveness in data.
Levy,M. J., & Tang, N. (2014). Medical support for lawenforcement-extended operations incidents. Americanjournal of disaster medicine,9(2),127-135. Retrieved fromhttp://www.wmpllc.org/ojs-2.4.2/index.php/ajdm/article/view/95
Thisarticle reviews clinical support of Maryland State Police duringoperation incidents that lasted for more than 8 hours. It wasdiscovered that people suffer from dehydration, musculoskeletalinjury, wounds, headaches, or cold related injuries. Thus, the studyconcludes that it is essential that effective and timely treatment isdelivered to ensure that the mission is not compromised. The articleprovides useful knowledge information on the importance of stand bymedical team to both the rescue team and the victims. It will help insupporting the research of other source in my paper providing astrong academic voice.
Pennardt,A., Kamin, R., Llewellyn, C., Shapiro, G., Carmona, P. A., &Schwartz, R. B. (2016). Integration of tactical emergency casualtycare into the national tactical emergency medical support competencydomains. Journalof special operations medicine: a peer reviewed journal for SOFmedical professionals,16(2),62. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27450605
Thearticle details the importance of TEMS as out of hospital response tohigh threat situations such as terror attacks, hostage scenarios,active shooter or warrant service. It adds how the TEMS has evolvedfor the past 40 years. Therefore, this article provides a history ofthe integration of TEMS in SWAT and its benefits. It is a usefulresource in showing how medic response has evolved over time, thus itis an important source for citing in my background information andintroduction of the paper.
Smith,B. P., Mulhern, J., Glenn, K., & Kaplan, L. J. (2016). Criticalincident team dynamics and logistics. in trauma team dynamics (pp.217-226)[Springer International Publishing].
Thisarticle provides insightful knowledge on how a SWAT team should reactespecially in stressful moments. It details key components that arerequired for successful mission such as team management, resourceallocation and immediate response.It mentions emergency medical response as a crucial factor inimproving the performance outcome of a SWAT response team. Hence,this article provides insightful knowledge on the components ofsuccessful mission ranging from leadership to the allocation ofresources, which is a useful source in cementing my researchargument.
Vainionpää,T., Peräjoki, K., Hiltunen, T., Porthan, K., Taskinen, A., Boyd, J.,& Kuisma, M. (2012). Integrated model for providing tacticalemergency medicine support (TEMS): analysis of 120 tacticalsituations. ActaAnaesthesiologica Scandinavica,56(2),158-163. Retrieved fromhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1399-6576.2011.02565.x/full
Thearticle provided deep analysis on tactical emergency supportimportance in case such as crowd control situation, siege, hostage,and bomb threat. In this study, 120 TEMs were examined. The studydiscovered that TEMS was feasible, efficient and rapid method toprovide on point medical support to law enforcement operation. Thisenable the victims in the situation to be classified in differentcategories thus they end up receiving appropriate care. The sourcewas useful in proving insight and it will help supporting my thesisstatement.
Young,J. B., Sena, M. J., & Galante, J. M. (2014). Physician roles intactical emergency medical support: the first 20 years. TheJournal of emergency medicine,46(1),38-45. Retrieved fromhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0736467913009323
Thisarticle details the importance of TEMS as providing immediate care,and injury prevention. The article adds that TEMS has been recognizedby SWAT as effective component in hostage operation. The article addsthat more physicians should be incorporated in specialized tacticalteams. Thus, the article shows importance of TEMS in SWAT operations,thus serving as an important research material to my topic.