Research Summary Table

Chamberlain College of Nursing NR505 Advanced Research Methods

ResearchSummary Table

Student ___

Author (year)


Sample/Number of Participants (provide descriptive statistics)


Level of Evidence

Findings (provide any inferential statistics)


Carvalho et al. (2015)

To evaluate the perception of healthcare professionals about the safety culture in the operating room of a public hospital

Sample of 226 professional

Descriptive Study of perception of professionals regarding safety culture in the operating room.

VI: evidence from a single descriptive study

226 professionals who answered the survey acknowledged the weakness in value regarding the need to uphold the safety of patients in the operating room.

Researchers relied on the perception of professionals rather than the use of actual research to determine the validity of the findings.

Birgand et al. (2014)

To assess staff behaviors using a motion tracking system and their impact on the SSI risk during surgical procedures

A sample of 10 ORs of cardiac and orthopedic surgery in 12 healthcare facilities

Descriptive study

VI: evidence from a single descriptive study

Surgical site infections significantly depend on the behaviors of professionals working in the operating room.

The guidelines for prevention of transmission of microorganisms to a given surgical wound are scarce and fuzzy.

Sartini et al. (2013)

To assess the results of a quality improvement effort implemented in an operating room

206 hip-joint replacement operations were evaluated where 103 patients were evaluated before the quality improvement scheme and the other 103 was assessed after.

Descriptive study

VI: evidence from a single descriptive study

Multiple economic advantages accrue to a given hospital that focuses on quality improvement

Study was conducted as a routine process of quality assessment meaning some crucial steps could have been lost

Melekie and Getahun (2015).

To evaluate the compliance of a checklist completion and its barrier for adoption at the University of Gondar Hospital

A sample of 282 professionals was assessed during the study

VI: evidence from a single descriptive study

The staff was able to complete the checklist, but the rate at which they complied with the same was not optimal.

The study was conducted only in one setting. The study was equally conducted within a short duration of time, and a small sample size was employed. Because of the same, it could not be possible to get conclusive results regarding the concept under study.


Inpatients admitted to the operating room, how effective are surgicalstaff collaboration, compliance, and attitude compared to consistentquality assessment in reducing the duration of stay pre and postoperation over a given period?


Thesearch strategy entailed the use of the terms “patient safety in anoperating room.” The inclusion criteria were studies conducted from2013 to date. Studies failing to meet the criteria were excluded. Theresearch papers were all selected from PubMed Central.


Theresearch study question addressed is: “How effective is surgicalstaff collaboration, compliance and attitude affect the patientoutcomes in an operating room?” The samples incorporated in thestudy entails that of actual surgical staff involved in the provisionof care for patients in the hospital. The studies are typical of anactual hospital set up by surgeons and staff in the operating roomshave been enrolled in the study. Results obtained from the study areinstrumental in providing a broader overview regarding the issueunder study. Different sample groups are selected based on theprevailing circumstances to help in getting more comprehensiveoverview relating to the subject under consideration.

Thefirst study Carvalho et al. (2015) focuses on investigating theperception of health professionals relating to the culture ofupholding safety while in an operating room. The researchers adoptthe descriptive design in getting a wider perception relating to thestudy under consideration. The evidence presented falls under levelVI since it is a descriptive study. The study is of significancesince it incorporates the concept of safety of patients who areundergoing an operation. It is essential to consider that theattitude of healthcare professionals regarding patient safety is ofcritical significance when it comes to the role they play inupholding the issue. A hospital that is composed of professionals whopractice a culture of safety is well placed to guarantee patientsafety compared to that which does not. For example, in the study,the researchers were able to determine that the 226 professionals whotook part in the study admitted that there was laxity when it comesto the concept to uphold patient safety at the operating room. It isa reflection of the fact that patients who are admitted to that givenhospital risk contracting the disease because the health careprofessionals do not consider the issue of safety in the operatingroom as essential. It has been determined that health professionalsserve as one a transmission route for infectious diseases. A healthinstitution composed of professionals without values of safety forpatients in an operating room could jeopardize the entire process ofservice delivery. However, the decision to rely on the perception ofprofessionals is a limitation that could be overcome by use of actualresearch.

Birgandet al. (2014) evaluate the staff behaviors concerning their impact onsurgical site infection risk in the course of the provision ofsurgical procedures. The researchers adopt the descriptive designmethod in answering their question. The study falls in level VI inthe evidence table. In the findings, the researchers were able toillustrate that indeed the behavior of health care professionalsundertaking surgical procedures determines the rate of occurrence ofsurgical site infections in the operating room. The finding isessential in answering the research question that focused onassessing the safety of patients in the operating room concerningstaff behavior, compliance, and collaboration. For example, healthcare providers who take precaution and coordinate effectively withother professionals are in a better position to protect theirpatients from any harm while in the operating room. The study ishelpful in answering the question since it relates to the concept ofpatient safety in the operating room but concerning the behavior ofhealth care professionals as they conduct surgical procedures.

Theresearchers selected used a sample of 10 operating rooms of both thecardiac and orthopedic surgery in twelve healthcare facilities. Thehealth professionals working in the chosen units were then monitoredby use of a motion tracking system. The sample chosen wasinappropriate since it falls below the recommended minimum sample of30. Because of the same, the chances are that the results derived maynot be reliable to influence decisions that are made.

Theauthors identify lack of guidelines regarding prevention oftransmission of microorganisms to a wound as a primary limitation.Because of the same, it could be difficult for them to have aframework that they can employ as a point of reference.

Thefindings of the study are essential and could be adopted for practicein nursing since it outlines how healthcare professionals working inan operating room should conduct themselves to protect patients fromsurgical site infections.

Sartiniet al. (2013), assess the impact of quality improvement efforts thathave been implemented in the operating room. The researchers identifyquality improvement as a crucial aspect of upholding patient safetyin an operating room. The study is conducted as part of the ongoingactivity of quality enhancement in the hospital. The researchersemploy the descriptive design in conducting the study. The evidencepresented falls in under level of VI in the table.

Theresearchers were able to identify that there are benefits that accrueto a hospital that focuses on the improvement of quality servicesoffered to the patient. The findings help in answering the researchquestion since it concentrates on the need to uphold patient safety.Quality improvement measures in any given organization aim atensuring that the services offered to patients are up to standardwith the goal of improving the outcome of treatment. The study isessential in helping answer the question under consideration.

Atotal of two hundred and six patients are selected for the study.One-half was investigated before the introduction of the qualityimprovement scheme while the other was evaluated after itsintroduction. Patients who had undergone hip-joint replacement wereinvolved in the study. The sample is adequate and results derivedfrom the findings can be relied upon in making decisions. The samplesurpasses the recommended minimum number of participants which isthirty.

Thestudy was conducted as a routine quality assessment process in ahospital. Because of the same, the researchers must have focused onone particular hospital. It is a limitation since the research wascarried out as part of policy. Because of the same, the chances arethat crucial aspects of the research could be missed. The researcherscan overcome the limitation by conducting the study in differenthospitals and customizing the entire research to the establishedframework of doing an experimental study.

Theevidence presented is reliable based on the fact that the sample usedwas large. Findings can be incorporated into practice. Particularly,hospitals can be subjected to conduct routine quality improvementwith the goal of improving patient outcomes in the operating room.

Melekieand Getahun (2015) evaluate the degree if compliance of a checklistcompletion and the barrier to its adoption at the University ofGondar Hospital. The researchers seek to assess how compliant staffis when it comes to completing a checklist related to the adoption ofsafe working practices at the operating room. It is critical toconsider that the ability to complete the checklist could serve as anindication of measures taken by staff working in the operating roomin protecting patients. The evidence presented falls under categoryVI since it is from a single descriptive study.

Thescholars were able to point out that staff was able to complete thechecklist. However, the rate at which they complied with theguidelines of the checklist was suboptimal. The findings areessential in answering the question regarding the concept of patientsafety in an operating room. The ability of staff to complete thechecklist means that they are adhering to guidelines aimed atimproving patient outcomes. If it turns out that staff are notcompleting the checklist, it means none of them is sticking to theneed to provide quality services to patients in the operating room.The effect is that patient safety is jeopardized.

Theauthors selected two hundred and eighty-two professionals who wereexpected to complete a survey relating to the issue of checklistcompletion. The chosen number of participants is adequate in helpinganswer the research question. It exceeds the recommended minimumsample of thirty needed for an experimental study. Studies thatincorporate large sample sizes are likely to give a broader pictureof the issue under investigation.

Variouslimitations defined the research. First, it was conducted in only onesetting and within a short duration of time. The approach couldaffect the outcome of results considering the amount of time neededto compile and analyze the results. However, the issue can beovercome by ensuring that the study is allocated enough time toensure all aspects are covered promptly.

Theevidence does not qualify for adoption to an ideal practiceenvironment. For example, the ability to complete a checklist is notevidence that indeed staff is complying with the need to upholdsafety in the operating room. Similarly, some staff could becomplying with the guidelines of safety in an operating room but failto sign the checklist. Because of the same, findings of the studycannot be adopted to practice in a typical hospital scenario.


Birgand,G., Azevedo, C., Toupet, G., Pissard-Gibollet, R., Grandbastien, B.,Fleury, E., &amp Lucet, J.-C. (2014). Attitudes, risk of infectionand behaviours in the operating room (the ARIBO Project): aprospective, cross-sectional study. BMJOpen,4(1),e004274.

Carvalho,P. A., Göttems, L. B. D., Pires, M. R. G. M., &amp de Oliveira, M.L. C. (2015). Safety culture in the operating room of a publichospital in the perception of healthcare professionals . RevistaLatino-Americana de Enfermagem,23(6),1041–1048.

Melekie,T. B., &amp Getahun, G. M. (2015). Compliance with Surgical SafetyChecklist completion in the operating room of University of GondarHospital, Northwest Ethiopia. BMCResearch Notes,8,361

SARTINI,M., SPAGNOLO, A. M., PANATTO, D., PERDELLI, F., &amp CRISTINA, M. L.(2013). Improving environmental quality in an operating room:clinical outcomes and economic implications. Journalof Preventive Medicine and Hygiene,54(2),75–79.