The was initiated residents of various colonies, whofelt that the Great Britain was treating the residents unfairly. Thewar took place between 1775 and 1783, and the primary goal of theresidents was to acquire independence. 1This paper will address two aspects of the ,including the factors that resulted in the turning of politicalprotests to armed conflicts and colonial grievances that Englandfailed to mediate.
PoliticalProtests Turn to Armed Dispute
Memberof different colonies understood that the British government wasmistreating them. They believed that holding protests would force theBritish government to listen to their grievances. However, there aretwo factors that forced them to advance their political protests toarmed conflicts. First, the British government denied them the formalplatforms on which they could air their grievances without engagingin armed protests. The British government made laws (such as the TeaAct of 1773) and policies through its parliament without facilitatingthe participation of the colonies, in spite of the fact that thoseregulations affected their lives directly. 2The absence of the representation in formal platforms, coupled withthe fact that the government could not heed to ordinary politicalprotests motivated the colonies to apply more violent measures.Instead of addressing issues raised through political protests, theBritish government sought to contain rioters through laws, such asthe Coercive Acts. 3This move was an indication that political protests would not yieldanything.
Secondly,the reaction of the British government towards the colonies that used
1.Grogan, H. RevolutionaryWar.Salem, MA: Phillips Library, 2012, p. 2.
2.Gemme, P. “Caroline Frank, objectifying China, imagining America:Chinese commodities in early America”. EuropeanJournal of American Studies2 (2012), p. 2.
3.Midgley, A. “First empire unraveled: Why the British lost the Warof American Independence”. Saberand Scroll2, no. 4 (2013), p. 142.
politicalprotests to fight for the rights motivated them to engage in armedconflicts. For example, the Boston Massacre that occurred in 1770,which resulted in the killing of five people, is an incident showingthat the military that advanced the interests the British governmentresolved to control political protests using the armed forces. 4From this perspective, it is clear that a decision for colonists toengage in armed protests was informed by the use of excessive forceto control colonies. In other words, it was evident that ordinarypolitical protests would not be able to counter the application ofthe military force by the colonists to impose imperial authority.
Grievancesthat England Failed to Mediate
Thereare many grievances the England failed to mediate, but three of themwere the most significant. First, colonies complained about theimposition of taxes without their consent. The British governmentformulated several legislations that helped it raise revenue in allcolonies without involving the residents in the process of decisionmaking. Some of the key legislations that were formulated include theTownshend Tariffs in 1767, the Stamp Act made in 1765, and the TeaAct of 1773. 5For example, the Boston Tea Party was initiated in 1773 with theobjective of opposing the implementation of the oppressive Tea Act. 6The residents of the Town of York boarded a British Merchant shipthat carried two half chest of tea and threw them into the river.Instead of mediating these grievances, the England came up with theIntolerance Act that resulted in the closure of the Boston Harboruntil the tea that was destroyed could be paid for.
4.Appleman, L. “The community right to counsel”. BerkeleyJournal of Criminal Law17, no. 1 (2012), p. 40.
5.Gemme,P. “Caroline Frank, objectifying China, imagining America: Chinesecommodities in early America”. EuropeanJournal of American Studies2 (2012), p. 2.
6.Midgley, A. “First empire unraveled: Why the British lost the Warof American Independence”. Saberand Scroll2, no. 4 (2013), p. 142.
Secondly,colonies complained that England had cut off trade for the colonies.The British government controlled the trade by raising taxes,regulating commodities that could be exported or imported, andsetting prices that benefited the colonial regime. 7
Third,residents of different colonies felt that the British governmentdenied them a fair trial. The suspects were judged by a single manwho was appointed by the king. They were held guilty until theadjudicator could prove them innocent, which was inconsistent withthe traditional legal practice. The presence of the military officersin the colonies was not a source of grievance to the colonies untilwhen they started using unreasonable force (including the killing ofrioters) to curb mass demonstrations. 8Instead of mediating the aforementioned grievances, the England madelaws and increased the military force in order to contain pressurefrom the colonies.
The was a reaction of the colonies towards theoppressive British government. The colonies felt that the colonialisthad denied the locals them a fair representation, while imposingunreasonable taxes. The colonial government claimed that the colonieswere part of England, but people living in them were treateddifferently, especially in the administration of justice.
7.Turner, L. “Why were the colonists upset with the Britishgovernment?” DemandMedia.http://classroom.synonym.com/were-colonists-upset-british-government-5761.html(Accessed September 1, 2016).
8.Appleman, L. “The community right to counsel”. BerkeleyJournal of Criminal Law17, no. 1 (2012), p. 40.
Appleman,L. “The community right to counsel”. BerkeleyJournal of Criminal Law17, no. 1 (2012): 1-61.
Gemme,P. “Caroline Frank, objectifying China, imagining America: Chinesecommodities in early America”. EuropeanJournal of American Studies2 (2012): 1-4.
Grogan,H. RevolutionaryWar.Salem, MA: Phillips Library, 2012.
Midgley,A. “First empire unraveled: Why the British lost the War ofAmerican Independence”. Saberand Scroll2, no. 4 (2013): 139-153.
Turner,L. “Why were the colonists upset with the British government?”DemandMedia.http://classroom.synonym.com/were-colonists-upset-british-government-5761.html(Accessed September 1, 2016).