Statistical Assessment of two Research Reports

StatisticalAssessment of two Research Reports

StatisticalAssessment of two Research Reports

ResearchPaper One

Lee, S. Y.,Kim, C. W., Kang, J. H., Yoon, T. H., &amp Kim, C. S. (2014).Influence of the nursing practice environment on job satisfaction andturnover intention. Journal of Preventive Medicine andPublic Health, 47(5), 258.



The research question regards the need to understand the impact ofthe physical environment in which the nurses operate from and theirintentions to quit duty. Researchers define the physical environmentin different parameters including the standardized nursing process,good doctor-nurse relationship and adequate staffing. The identifiedparameters are linked to the aspect of job satisfaction and areassessed based on their impact to increase or decrease turnoverintention among nurses. The concern of the researchers emanates fromthe fact that recently, there has been an increase in the intentionof nurses to quit their roles. It is an issue of significance becauseof the sensitive role nurses play in ensuring effectiveness inrunning of affairs in the hospitals.

Brief overview of Data Collection

In solving the research question, researchers collect data by sendinga questionnaire in which the participants were expected to answer.The questionnaire was designed in line with the requirements andguidelines stipulated by the Chungman National University. Theresearchers had identified the dependent and independent variablesand used the same toward the collection of the data. The participantswere nurses who were registered with the Korea Health and MedicalWorkers’ Union. Out of the 2520 who were registered, only 11731were enrolled in the participation program and 5654 responded to thesurvey (Lee, Kim, Kang, Yoon, &amp Kim, 2014).

Source of Data

The researchers adopted the use of a questionnaire that hadself-administered questions. The participants had to answer thequestions in the questionnaire and that could serve as a basis towardgaining an understanding on the research in question. Jobsatisfaction among nurses was determined on a five-point scale asdissatisfied, somewhat dissatisfied, fair, somewhat satisfied andvery satisfied. However, for turnover intention, the questions wereexpected to provide a yes or no response. The question was “Are youplanning to leave your current job within the next year”?(Lee etal., 2014)

Independent and Dependent Variables

Dependent Variables

Job satisfaction and turnover intention

Independent Variable

Nurse practice environment

Sample Size Estimation

The choice of the sample was appropriate since it surpassed therecommended 100. The researchers enrolled a total of 5654 nurses whotook part in the study. The number was appropriate to yield reliableresults since the selection of the nurses was large enough. Thechoice of the sample was appropriate and could be relied upon to givemeaningful results to help in drawing reliable conclusions. A poweranalysis was not enlisted in the study but the sample size wasappropriate for the statistical test that was employed. For example,the researchers adopted the multilevel logistics analysis inexecuting their analysis.

Description of Statistics Used

The researchers opted to employ descriptive statistical analysis indescribing the general characteristics including job satisfaction,turnover intention and the hospital environment. However, theresearchers employed the multilevel logistic regression analysis,particularly the hierarchical linear model for the explanatoryvariables. The choice of the statistical methods was appropriatesince it enabled the researchers gain a broader understanding on thesubject matter. Particularly, it was mandatory to select a methodthat was appropriate enough to consider all the identified variablesunder consideration.

The researchers had no clear guidelines on the aspect of theassumptions since much of the study was focused on categorization ofvariables into different stages. The level of measurement wasappropriate since considering the large sample size and the diversityof the variables being investigated, it was crucial to assess each indifferent levels. For example, nurses from both the private andpublic hospitals were participating in the study. It was crucial tocome up with a method that acknowledges the variations in thephysical environment.

Data was displayed in a statistical table based on the results thatthe researchers derived. It was appropriate to do so for ease ofreadability and understanding the concepts under study.

Section II

Data Analysis Evaluation

The researchers were able to find a correlation between standardizednursing process, adequate staffing and a good doctor-nurserelationship and job satisfaction. However, it is essential toconsider the factors at the hospital level. The results were suchthat standardized nursing process was determined at an odds ratio of4.21 p&lt0.001, adequate staffing 4.21 p&lt0.001and a good doctor-nurse relationship was determined at 4.15 p&lt0.01(Lee et al., 2014).

Conclusions by Researchers

Researchers determined that the nurse practice environment had acrucial impact on the job satisfaction among nurses. Particularly,they cited adequate staffing, good doctor-nurse relationship and astandardized process as playing crucial roles in improving jobsatisfaction. However, they concluded that the nurse practiceenvironment had no impact on nurse turnover intention.

The conclusions are right since the physical environment in whichnurses operate from has a crucial impact in determining how theirsatisfaction. Further, nurse turnover intention can be affected byother factors apart from the physical environment in which nurses areoperating.

Limitations of Study

Data was not available especially at the wards and departments. Theysolved the issue by omitting the same in their study. Next study didnot reflect conditions in the small and medium-sized hospitals.Researchers addressed the issue by incorporating results of the datathat was at their disposal.

Evaluation of Methods

The researchers did well in ensuring that they collect a huge samplesize since it could offer more conclusive results. However, theinability to collect data from the small and medium sized hospitalswas not right since it can be perceived that they were biased.Overall, findings of the study are appropriate and reliable enough toguide in policy making. Further, the articulation of the resultsmakes it appropriate through use of statistical tables followed bytheir illustration is effective.

ResearchStudy Two

Chien, W. T.,&amp Yick, S. Y. (2016). An Investigation of Nurses’ JobSatisfaction in a Private Hospital and Its Correlates. TheOpen Nursing Journal, 10(1).



The researchers seek to investigate the aspect of job satisfaction,stress and intention to quit in private hospitals. The researchersacknowledge the fact that much of the research has been conducted fornurses working in public hospitals. Because of the same, theresearchers resort to undertake a study that would help yield datathat pertains to nurses working in the private hospitals.

Overview ofData Collected

The researchers employ a stratified random sampling technique toselect participants of the study. A total of 139 nurses working at aprivate hospital with a capacity of 400 beds are enrolled in thestudy for a duration of six months. Nurses who were part of the studyprovide direct care for the patients.

Source of theData

Data collection was done through the use of a self-administeredstructured questionnaire. It consisted of sections of Index of WorkSatisfaction that depicted job satisfaction. Anxiety-stressquestionnaire that showed job stress, Michigan OrganizationalAssessment Questionnaire that illustrated intention to quit and sociodemographic data. The participants were expected to provide responsesto the questions in the questionnaire.

Independentand Dependent Variable


Job stress

Job satisfaction


Nurse turnover

Sample SizeEstimation

The researchers resort to enroll a total of 139 participants in thestudy. (Lu, Barriball, Zhang, &amp While, 2012) The choice of thesample was appropriate considering it surpassed the recommended sizeof 100. No power analysis was done by the authors. The sample size isappropriate considering that not many nurses work in privatehospitals. The number could serve as a representation of the totalpopulation that would be study.

Description ofStatistic Employed

In analyzing the results, the Statistical Package for Social Sciencessoftware was employed. Summary of job satisfaction, job stress,job-related traits of nurses were analyzed through the descriptivestatistics. However, the researchers employed Pearson’s correlationto examine the relationship between job stress, job satisfaction,intention to quit and their demographic data. Researchers alsoincorporated Spearman Rho test in assessing the correlation betweenjob stress, job satisfaction and the nurses’ socio-demographiccharacteristic. Finally, researchers employed One-way analysis ofVariance to determine the difference in levels of job satisfactionand jobs stress with the significant level being set at 0.05 (Lu etal., 2012).

However, there are no imminent assumptions cited by the authors. Thelevels of measurement employed were equally appropriate based on theoverall design of the study.

Data Display

Findings of the study were displayed in form of tables as it relatedto the individual question that had been asked. Particularly resultsof the correlation between job satisfaction with intention to quitand job stress.

Data AnalysisEvaluation

Data analysis indicates that the nurses working in the privatehospitals had a moderate degree of satisfaction with their work.Further, it was determined from the analysis that the levels of jobstress and intention to quit were equally moderate. There was anegative correlation between job satisfaction and job stress and theintention to quit. Further, it was determined that nurses who wereaged had a higher degree of job satisfaction and this was attributedto the remuneration they received and autonomy.

Conclusions byResearchers

The authors conclude that nurses working in the private hospitals hadmoderate stress levels and job satisfaction. Further, they cited thatsocio-demographic factors such as pay or age and the years ofexperience in service determined job stress and satisfaction levels.

Indeed socio-demographic factors have a crucial role to play when itcomes to determination of satisfaction in one’s field of work. Itis because it was accompanied with increased pay and autonomy in howone executes the tasks that they have been mandated to executed.Further, nurses who are stressed in executing their duties have a lowlevel of satisfaction (Mahdi, Zin, Nor, Sakat, &amp Naim, 2012).

Limitations ofthe Study

The researchers could not employ power analysis because the designwas cross sectional. Further, the data was only derived from a singlehospital. Because of the same, the researchers had to stick to theprovisions of the appropriate statistical methods to help in gettingconclusive results.

Evaluation ofMethods Used

The researchers did well in incorporating a variety of statisticaltechniques when it came to the analysis of the results. Findings ofeach analysis could help in yielding results that were reliableenough to provide meaningful conclusions. However, the researchershad a small sample size. For example, they sort to investigate nursesworking in a single private hospital. The results may have affectedthe reliability of the study. Researchers could in future considerselecting participants from different private hospitals.

The findings are questionable because of the sample size. Further,the researchers sought to investigate multiple factors at the sametime, making the entire results questionable. It could have beenappropriate for the researchers to focus their studies in aparticular line to ensure that they get conclusive results.Nevertheless, the findings can be accepted on grounds that theresearchers did not have a wide sample size.

Section III

Understandingof the Data

The research conducted provide useful insights when it comes to theoverall nursing profession. Both studies identify the importance ofensuring that hospital institutions provide an appropriateenvironment that boosts the job satisfaction levels of nurses. Itwould prevent adverse outcomes such as intention to quit and reducedmorale in executing the tasks they have been assigned (Bonenberger,Aikins, Akweongo, &amp Wyss, 2014). Nurses as professionalcaregivers must ensure that they advocate for a healthy workingenvironment with the superiors to ensure that they do not develop atendency to quit work due to stress.

The nursing peers may perceive the study as being used to help pointout the challenges common in the profession. Their thoughts could bethat indeed there are problems in the nursing fraternity that needsto be addressed.

There are aspects that could be confusing to the nurses.Particularly, there are various factors that are related tointentions to quit work. For example, the second study has brought inthe aspect of socio-demographic factors as an issue that determinesjob satisfaction. Such sections can be confusing.


The studies are essential in provision of sufficient evidence tofacilitate change in practice. For example, stakeholders in thehealth sector can adopt the findings from both studies to improveworking conditions to the nurses and reduce turnover intention. Thestatistics are equally useful in elaborating factors that determinesatisfaction. They support overall findings on the relationshipbetween job satisfaction and turnover intention.


Bonenberger, M., Aikins, M., Akweongo, P., &amp Wyss, K. (2014).The effects of health worker motivation and job satisfaction onturnover intention in Ghana: a cross-sectional study. HumanResources for Health, 12(1), 43.

Lee, S.-Y., Kim, C.-W., Kang, J.-H., Yoon, T.-H., &amp Kim, C. S.(2014). Influence of the nursing practice environment on jobsatisfaction and turnover intention. Journal of PreventiveMedicine and Public Health = Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi, 47(5),258–65.

Lu, H., Barriball, K. L., Zhang, X., &amp While, A. E. (2012). Jobsatisfaction among hospital nurses revisited: A systematic review.International Journal of Nursing Studies.

Mahdi, A. F., Zin, M. Z. M., Nor, M. R. M., Sakat, A. A., &amp Naim,A. S. A. (2012). The relationship between job satisfaction andturnover intention. American Journal of Applied Sciences,9(9), 1518–1526.