Summaries of the Selected Articles

SUMMARIES OF THE SELECTED ARTICLES 5

Summariesof the Selected Articles

Summariesof the Selected Articles

Article1: “Infants`Selectively Pay Attention to the Information They Receives from aNative Speaker of Their Language” by Hanna Marno, Bahia Guellai,Yamil Vidal, Julia Franzoi, Marina Nespor and Jacques Mehler,Published on 03 August 2016.

Inthe article, the authors explore the issue of infants who showselective attention to information presented by a native speaker. Theauthors found out that discrimination and phonetic contrast on mothertongue are portrayed by children as early as five-months old.However, with age, children increase sensitivity to native-languagephonetic while non-native phonetic perceptions sensitivity decreases(Marno et al, 2016). They argue that selective attention does notonly apply to language alone but to objects such as food, which arepresented and commented positively by native speakers. At the age offive years, it is more apparent as children prefer befriending nativespeakers compared to those with foreign accents (Marno et al, 2016).The authors argue that on social preference basis, childrencategorize others by gender, age, and ethnic origin. However, racialboundaries cannot be utterly drawn as children will prefer nativeaccent speakers.

Theauthors made various experiments were carried out to confirm thisassumption. At first, confusion task was conducted, and participantswere required to watch faces and listen to simple statements.Eventually, they were asked to remember the faces that producedreports, and their answers were erroneous due to non-consciouscategorization. Faces of individuals with same social categories wereconfused easily. The experiment was important as it was possible topredict and guide future social interactions. It is so as childrenselect and imitate behavior from native speakers.

Theresearch made two more experiments was done on eighty 12- and5-months old monolingual Italian infants. The test involved observingobjects presented by Italian and Slovenian speakers. 12 months wasappropriate as at this age children have heightened sensitivity to anobject property. During familiarization stage, all infants had equalattention to both speakers (Marno et al, 2016). The 12-moths old hada significant novelty effect while the 5-moths old did not. However,in both cases, infants preferred object that was initially presentedby native speakers. As a result, 28 out of 40 12-months old and 29out of 40 5-moths old stared longer at objects presented by nativespeakers. It was concluded that language is a viable signal inguiding infants` social learning.

Article2: “TheRole of Interactional Quality in Learning from Touch Screens duringInfancy: Context Matters” by Elizabeth Zack and Rachel Barr

Inthis article, the two authors explore how babies are good atinteracting with real objects. When it comes to three-dimensional andtwo-dimensional objects on the screen, they encounter problems asthey have to internalize the information to the physical world. As aresult, those who are not lucky to meet physical objects may notfully understand how to translate objects on the screen to lookphysical (Zack &amp Barr, 2016). According to the authors, it is dueto this reason that it is important to allow the infants to acquirereal exposure to facilitate understanding on objects on the screen.

Highquality and average quality of interaction can serve the purpose ofintensifying rate of understanding. In an experiment conducted on15-months old, mothers took five minutes to illustrate to theirinfants that real buttons on their toys function the same way asvirtual buttons on a screen (Zack &amp Barr, 2016). As a result ofthe maternal interaction, those children managed to interpretthree-dimensional as well as two-dimensional objects. According tothe authors, the quality of interaction determined the rate oftransfer of knowledge. Those infants that acquired high-qualitycommunication had a faster rate of knowledge transfer compared tothose that had moderate as well as weak interaction quality.

Theauthors note that in the contemporary world, there is heightened useof iPads, screen touch phones as well as tablets. Due to increasedtechnology, infants get exposure to these objects. On the other hand,parents have little time to expose their children to internalizationon how to use these gadgets. In some cases, children manage tomaneuver and use them individually. However, studies show that whenparents interact with infants with the aim of helping them use thetouch screened, those children acquire 19 times cognitive abilitycompared to those who learn without parental guidance (Zack &ampBarr, 2016). It is the same interaction that facilitates language aswell as behavior acquisition.

References

Marno,H., Guellai, B., Vidal, Y., Franzoi, J., Nespor, M., &amp Mehler, J.(2016). Infants`Selectively Pay Attention to the Information They Receives from aNative Speaker of Their Language. Retrievedfrom, &lthttp://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01150/full&gt16 September 2016

Zack,E., &amp Barr, R. (2016). TheRole of Interactional Quality in Learning from Touch Screens duringInfancy: Context Matters.Retrieved from, &lthttp://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01264/full&gt16September 2016