Understandingthe differences between Bipolar Disorder and Unipolar Disorder foraccurate clinical diagnosis
UsingBipolar Disorder as the key word in google scholar search a set ofjournals resulted from a singles search with various topics under thekey word search. I choose this article since I wanted to understandthe differences between bipolar disorder and unipolar difference.
BipolarDisorder (BD) makes it to the list of the psychiatric illnesses thatare debilitating. Unfortunately, practitioners have limited knowledgeof offering accurate diagnosis due to the existence of relateddisorder, Unipolar Disorder (UD). Therefore, the chance of havingwrong diagnosis of the two disorders has a high prevalent ofoccurrence. The challenges that make accurate diagnosis between BDand UD are based on more chances of hypomanic symptoms during thedevelopment of BD illness and subthreshold manic signs occurring inboth UD and BD. The article aids in understanding study findingsdirected in understanding the differences of BD and UD forclinicians.
Thearticle has noted that about 20 percent of BD patients receive theright diagnosis during their depressive moments, in their treatmentjourney. Wrong BD diagnosis has adverse effect on the patient with alikely of increased suicidal attempts, switch to mania, and anincreased cost of health care services. An individual suffering fromBD has high prevalence of suffering instances of mania. The articlehas a reviewed set of studies done on various study models to makeconclusive interpretation on how to distinguish BD from UD. Thestudied used participants suffering BD type I and II, and thecomparison UD patients. Developed strategies primarily focus ondifferentiating BD using subthreshold/hypomanic symptoms detections.The strategies employ rating scales such as the Bipolar SpectrumScale, Screening Assessment of Depression among other common bipolarrating scales. However, the rating scales have the challenge ofdiscovering pathophysiologic mechanism that is important in decidingthe right prescription for BD patients.
ANeuroimaging study was the first point of focus to compare patientssuffering from Bipolar disorder depression and unipolar disorderdepression. In this case, the article noted that structuralNeuroimaging was used in studies of the BD and UD. Under structuralneuroimaging, fractional anisotropy (FA) of the brain was examined bydiffusion tensor imaging. From 15 BD-I patients, 16 UD patients, and24 healthy adults indicated that the right uncinated fasciculus ofboth BD and health individuals had decreased FA, on the other hand UDverse healthy individuals had decreased FA in their inferior leftlongitudinal fasciculus. The interpretation made was that there wasa white bilateral matter connecting the resigns supporting motioncontrol and sensory for BD patients and not present in UD patients.Another experiment was done on the same study topic including 13 BD-Ipatients, 11 UD- patients, and 19 healthy individual. The study aimedto examine deep white matter hyper-intensities (DWMH) andperiventricular. The finding indicated there was an increase in DWMHof BD versus UD and healthy versus BD. This suggested a conclusionthat BD can be linked with comorbid illnesses.
Thesecond set of studies was done focusing functional neuroimaging todirectly compare bipolar and unipolar depressed individuals. Emotional processing was investigated in 12 BD patients, 13 UDpatients, and 15 healthy individuals for testing reversal learningwhen there is change in reinforcement. The study finding noted thatthere was a prevalence for UD patients to reverse response due to amisleading feedback linked with reduction of ventrolateral combinedwith dorsomedial prefrontal cortical activities.
Inconclusion, the author has a perspective of likelihood-increasedresearch on the topic since available researches have notexhaustively provided information to help clinicians easily andaccurately diagnose bipolar disorder depression. There author pointof view is supported by advancement in medical technology. Theobjectives for further studies would be to increase base ofbiomarkers to help in differentiating between UD and BD, this moveseems to be encouraging as much as been achieved in the already donestudies.
deAlmeida, J. R. C., & Phillips, M. L. (2013). Distinguishingbetween unipolar depression and bipolar depression: current andfuture clinical and neuroimaging perspectives. Biologicalpsychiatry, 73(2),111-118.